Overweight people in the world:

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Variously also known as exertional and cough headaches. Hi I have always wanted to know why I build up water all over my body during the day. I was able to maintain my weight. My daughter 8yrs was asked if she was anorexic by another child at school! Axe in any way, so if you have specific questions for his company, you can reach out to them: If you are in the welcomed company of someone and there are things that highly offend them or they feel more strongly about than you, like swearing, smoking, taking shoes off in the house, or not eating meat, just be considerate. Constipation Another common cause of lower right or left abdominal pain is constipation.

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This pain is not usually severe, but it may be accompanied by vaginal spotting or bleeding. It is often relieved by rest and pain relievers, but if it is accompanied by fever and nausea, infections such as appendicitis must be considered. Small, crystal deposits can form inside the kidneys, especially when urine becomes too concentrated.

Kidney stones can pass through any part of the urinary tract, from the kidney to the bladder. This can be very painful, although the stones do not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms include severe pain below the right ribs, including the side and back, which may spread to the lower right abdominal area and groin. The pain may come in waves and fluctuate in severity. Associated symptoms include pain when urinating, pinkish, reddish or brownish urine that may be cloudy and foul-smelling, nausea, vomiting, fever with chills, and frequent urination. Sometimes pain may be relieved by drinking a lot of water and taking pain relievers. However, if the pain is severe then you may need to consult a doctor for possible removal of the stone.

Infection in the bladder or any part of the urinary tract can spread to the kidneys, causing inflammation and pain.

It is characterized by lower abdominal pain, back pain, flank pain, or groin pain. There is a persistent urge to urinate, and this urination may be painful. Pus or blood may be seen in the urine. Fever is often present.

Kidney infection can lead to widespread infection or kidney damage if left untreated. Therefore, it is best to seek consultation for antibiotic treatment to prevent complications. The ovary sometimes produces fluid filled sacs on the surface, which may grow large and produce discomfort. Although they are usually harmless and can resolve on their own, they may become enlarged and get twisted, producing lower abdominal pains.

They can produce dull, aching, pelvic pain that is persistent or intermittent, and may radiate to the lower back and thigh. Pelvic pains may be experienced near the beginning or end of a menstrual period. Menstrual periods may be irregular. Lower abdominal pain may also be associated with heaviness or fullness of the abdomen, nausea, vomiting and pressure on the bladder or rectum. Although most ovarian cysts resolve on their own, you should see a doctor if there is a sudden, severe lower abdominal or pelvic pain that is associated with fever or vomiting.

Another common cause of lower right or left abdominal pain is constipation. This occurs when you are unable to regularly pass stools with ease, and instead, may pass hard stools less than 3 times a week. Straining, bloating, and pressure in the rectum accompany the pain.

The enzyme cleaves the bond between C-3 and C All glycolytic intermediates downstream to this reaction are three-carbon molecules , instead of six-carbon molecules as the previous ones. Of the two products of the previous reaction, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate goes directly into the second phase of the glycolytic pathway. Conversely, DHAP is not on the direct pathway of glycolysis and must be converted, isomerized , to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to continue through the pathway.

This isomerization is catalyzed by triose phosphate isomerase EC 5. Triose phosphate isomerase, in converting dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, catalyzes the transfer of a hydrogen atom from C-1 to C-2, that is, catalyzes an intramolecular oxidation-reduction.

One of the distinguishing features of triose phosphate isomerase is the great catalytic efficiency. The enzyme is in fact considered kinetically perfect.

The enzyme enhances the isomerization rate by a factor of 10 10 compared with that obtained with a catalyst such as acetate ion. Thus, the rate-limiting step in the reaction catalyzed by triose phosphate isomerase is diffusion-controlled encounter of enzyme and substrate. And it is the free energy derived from the hydrolysis two ATP that, under standard-state conditions, makes the value of the overall equilibrium constant close to one.

Notice that dihydroxyacetone phosphate may also be reduced to glycerol 3-phosphate see Fig. The enzyme acts as a bridge between glucose and lipid metabolism because the glycerol 3-phosphate produced is used in the synthesis of lipids such as triacylglycerols.

This reaction is an important sources of glycerol 3-phosphate in adipose tissue and small intestine. In the sixth step of the glycolytic pathway, the first step of the second phase, the payoff phase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase EC 1.

This is the first of the two glycolytic reactions in which the chemical energy needed for the subsequent synthesis of ATP is harvested and made available; the other reaction is catalyzed by enolase EC 4.

This reaction is the sum of two processes. Therefore, the free energy that might be released as heat is instead conserved by the formation of the acyl phosphate. Below, the half reactions for both coenzymes. In the seventh step of the glycolytic pathway, phosphoglycerate kinase EC 2. The high phosphoryl-transfer potential of the acyl phosphate is used to phosphorylate ADP. The reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase is the first reaction of glycolysis in which part of the chemical energy present in glucose molecule is conserved as ATP.

It should be noted that the enzyme is named for the reverse reaction, from right to left as written, that is, the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoglycerate to form 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate at the expense of one ATP. Indeed, this enzyme, like all other enzymes, is able to catalyze the reaction in both directions. And the direction leading to the synthesis of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate occurs during the photosynthetic CO 2 fixation and gluconeogenesis.

The sixth and seventh reactions of glycolysis, are, as a whole, an energy-coupling process in which the common intermediate is 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. In reality, phosphoglycerate kinase reaction is sufficiently exergonic to pull also the reactions catalyzed by aldolase and triose phosphate isomerase. Substrate-level phosphorylation is defined as the production of ATP by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a substrate to ADP, a process involving chemical intermediates and soluble enzymes.

There is also a second type of phosphorylation for the synthesis of ATP called oxidative phosphorylation , a process involving not chemical intermediates and soluble enzymes but transmembrane proton gradients and membrane-bound enzymes.

Because the standard free energy of hydrolysis of the phosphoryl group of 3-phosphoglycerate is equal to In the eighth step of the glycolytic pathway, 3-phosphoglycerate is converted into 2-phosphoglycerate 2-PG , in a reversible reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate mutase EC 5.

Phosphoglycerate mutase is a mutase , enzymes that catalyze intramolecular group transfers, in this case the transfer of a phosphoryl group from C-3 to C-2 of the 3-phosphoglycerate.

Mutases, in turn, are a subclass of isomerases. The mechanism by which this reaction takes place depends on the type of organism studied. For example, in yeast or in rabbit muscle the reaction occurs in two steps and involves the formation of phosphoenzyme intermediates. In the first step, a phosphoryl group bound to a histidine residue in the active site of the enzyme is transferred to the hydroxyl group at C-2 of 3-PG to form 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate.

In the next step, the enzyme acts as a phosphatase converting 2,3-BPG into 2-phosphoglycerate; however, the phosphoryl group at C-3 is not released but linked to the histidine residue of the active site to regenerate the intermediate enzyme-His-phosphate.

Notice that the phosphoryl group of 2-phosphoglycerate is not the same as that of the substrate 3-phosphoglycerate. Approximately once in every catalytic cycles, 2,3-BPG dissociates from the active site of the enzyme, leaving it unphosphorylated, that is, in the inactive form. The inactive enzyme may be reactivated by binding 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which must, therefore, be present in the cytosol to ensure the maximal activity of the enzyme.

The biosynthesis of serine begins with the reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase EC 1. This reaction is also the rate-limiting step of this biosynthetic pathway, because serine inhibits the activity of the enzyme. In red blood cells this reaction is catalyzed by the bisphosphoglycerate mutase, one of the three isoforms of phosphoglycerate mutase found in mammals. The enzyme requires the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate as it catalyzes the intermolecular transfer of a phosphoryl group from C-1 of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to the C-2 of 3-phosphoglycerate.

The mutase enzyme activity has EC number 5. This activity has EC number 3. The enzyme is also able to catalyze the interconversion of 2-phosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate, therefore, it is a trifunctional enzyme. The other two isoforms of phosphoglycerate mutase, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 or type M, present in the muscle, and phosphoglycerate mutase 2 or type B, present in all other tissues, are able to catalyze, in addition to the interconversion of the 2-phosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate, the two steps of Rapoport-Luebering pathway, although with less efficacy than the glycolytic reaction.

Therefore they are trifunctional enzymes. In the ninth step of the glycolytic pathway, 2-phosphoglycerate is dehydrated to form phosphoenolpyruvate , an enol, in a reversible reaction catalyzed by enolase.

Why does this phosphoryl group have a high free energy of hydrolysis? Although phosphoenolpyruvate and 2-phosphoglycerate contain nearly the same amount of metabolic energy with respect to decomposition to CO 2 , H 2 0 and P i , 2-PG dehydration leads to a redistribution of energy such that the standard free energy of hydrolysis of the phosphoryl groups vary as described below:.

What happens is that the phosphoryl group traps PEP in its unstable enol form. When, in the last step of glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate donates the phosphoryl group to ADP, ATP and the enol form of pyruvate are formed.

The enol form of pyruvate is unstable and tautomerizes rapidly and nonenzymatically to the more stable keto form, that predominates at pH 7.

So, the high phosphoryl-transfer potential of PEP is due to the subsequent enol-keto tautomerization of pyruvate. In the final step of the glycolytic pathway, pyruvate kinase EC 2. This is the second substrate-level phosphorylation of glycolysis. The enzyme is a tetramer and, like PFK-1 , is a highly regulated. Indeed, it has binding sites for numerous allosteric effectors. Moreover, in vertebrates, there are at least three isozymes of pyruvate kinase, of which the M type predominates in muscle and brain, while the L type in liver.

These isozymes have many properties in common, whereas differ in the response to hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine and insulin. And, of the The remaining energy, While the reaction catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase, in the seventh step of the glycolytic pathway, pays off the ATP debt of the preparatory phase, the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase allows a net gain of two ATP.

Such pathways allow, therefore, maintenance of the redox balance of the cell. Pyruvate is a versatile metabolite that can enter several metabolic pathways, both anabolic and catabolic, depending on the type of cell, the energy state of the cell and the availability of oxygen. With the exception of some variations encountered in bacteria, exploited, for example, in food industry for the production of various foods such as many cheeses, there are essentially three pathways in which pyruvate may enter:.

This allows glycolysis to proceed in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. It is therefore possible to state that the catabolic fate of the carbon skeleton of glucose is influenced by the cell type, the energetic state of the cell, and the availability of oxygen. In animals, with few exceptions, and in many microorganisms when oxygen availability is insufficient to meet the energy requirements of the cell, or if the cell is without mitochondria, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is reduced to lactate in the cytosol, in a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase EC 1.

The conversion of glucose to lactate is called lactic acid fermentation. The overall equation of the process is:. In other words, in the conversion of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 , to lactate, C 3 H 6 O 3 , the ratio of hydrogen to carbon atoms of the reactants and products does not change. From an energy point of view, it should however be emphasized that fermentation extracts only a small amount of the chemical energy of glucose.

In humans, much of the lactate produced enters the Cori cycle for glucose production via gluconeogenesis. We can also state that lactate production shifts part of the metabolic load from the extrahepatic tissues, such as skeletal muscle during intense bouts of exercise, like a meter, when the rate of glycolysis can almost instantly increase 2,fold, to the liver. Therefore, portion of the lactate released by skeletal muscle engaged in intense exercise is used by the heart muscle for fuel.

Lactate produced by microorganisms during lactic acid fermentation is responsible for both the scent and taste of sauerkraut, namely, fermented cabbage, as well as for the taste of soured milk. The first step involves the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetaldehyde, an essentially irreversible reaction.

The reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate decarboxylase EC 4. The enzyme is absent in vertebrates and in other organisms that perform lactic acid fermentation.

In the second step, acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol in a reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1. At neutral pH, the equilibrium of the reaction lies strongly toward ethyl alcohol formation. The conversion of glucose to ethanol and CO 2 is called alcoholic fermentation. The overall reaction is:. And, as for lactic fermentation, even in alcoholic fermentation no net oxidation-reduction occurs. Alcoholic fermentation is the basis of the production of beer and wine.

In cells with mitochondria and under aerobic conditions, the most common situation in multicellular and many unicellular organisms, the oxidation of NADH and pyruvate catabolism follow distinct pathways. In the mitochondrial matrix, pyruvate is first converted to acetyl-CoA in a reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In the reaction, a oxidative decarboxylation , pyruvate loses a carbon atom as CO 2 , and the remaining two carbon unit is bound to Coenzyme A to form acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase therefore represents a bridge between glycolysis, which occurs in the cytosol, and the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

In turn, electrons derived from oxidations that occur during glycolysis are transported into mitochondria via the reduction of cytosolic intermediates. Here the electrons flow to oxygen to form H 2 O, a transfer that supplies the energy needed for the synthesis of ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation.

Of course, also the electrons carried by NADH formed by pyruvate dehydrogenase and citric acid cycle and by FADH 2 formed by citric acid cycle meet a similar fate. Under anabolic conditions, the carbon skeleton of pyruvate may have fates other than complete oxidation to CO 2 or conversion to lactate. In fact, after its conversion to acetyl-CoA, it may be used, for example, for the synthesis of fatty acids , or of the amino acid alanine see Fig. In the glycolytic pathway the glucose molecule is degraded to two molecules of pyruvate.

In the first phase, the preparatory phase, two ATP are consumed per molecule of glucose in the reactions catalyzed by hexokinase and PFK In the second phase, the payoff phase, 4 ATP are produced through substrate-level phosphorylation in the reactions catalyzed by phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase. So there is a net gain of two ATP per molecule of glucose used.

In addition, in the reaction catalyzed by glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, two molecules of NADH are produced for each glucose molecule. Here are the two reactions.

Cancelling the common terms on both sides of the equation, we obtain the overall equation shown above. Under anaerobic conditions , regardless of what is the metabolic fate of pyruvate, conversion to lactate, ethanol or other molecules, there is no additional production of ATP downstream of glycolysis. Under aerobic conditions , in cells with mitochondria, the amount of chemical energy that can be extracted from glucose and stored within ATP is much greater than under anaerobic conditions.

If we consider the two NADH produced during glycolysis, the flow of their 4 reducing equivalents along the mitochondrial electron transport chain allows the production of ATP per electron pair through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, 6 to 8 ATP are produced when one molecule of glucose is converted into two molecules of pyruvate, 2 from glycolysis and from oxidative phosphorylation. Considering both estimates, the production of ATP is about 15 times greater than under anaerobic condition.

Other carbohydrates besides glucose, both simple and complex, can be catabolized via glycolysis, after enzymatic conversion to one of the glycolytic intermediates. Among the most important are:. Dietary starch and disaccharides must be hydrolyzed in the intestine to the respective monosaccharides before being absorbed. Once in the venous circulation, monosaccharides reach the liver through the portal vein; this organ is the main site where they are metabolized.

Regarding the phosphorolytic breakdown of starch and endogenous glycogen refer to the corresponding articles. Under physiological conditions, the liver removes much of the ingested fructose from the bloodstream before it can reach extrahepatic tissues. The hepatic pathway for the conversion of the monosaccharide to intermediates of glycolysis consists of several steps.

In the first step fructose is phosphorylated to fructose 1-phosphate at the expense of one ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by fructokinase EC 2. As for glucose, fructose phosphorylation traps the molecule inside the cell. In the second step fructose 1-phosphate aldolase catalyzes the hydrolysis , an aldol cleavage, of fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is an intermediate of the glycolytic pathway and, after conversion to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, may flow through the pathway.

Conversely, glyceraldehyde is not an intermediate of the glycolysis, and is phosphorylated to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate at the expense of one ATP. The reaction is catalyzed by triose kinase EC 2. In hepatocytes, therefore, a molecule of fructose is converted to two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate , at the expense of two ATP, as for glucose. In extrahepatic sites , such as skeletal muscle, kidney or adipose tissue, fructokinase is not present, and fructose enters the glycolytic pathway as fructose 6-phosphate.

In fact, as previously seen , hexokinase can catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose at C However, the affinity of the enzyme for fructose is about 20 times lower than for glucose, so in the hepatocyte, where glucose is much more abundant than fructose , or in the skeletal muscle under anaerobic conditions, that is, when glucose is the preferred fuel, little amounts of fructose 6-phosphate are formed.

Conversely, in adipose tissue , fructose is more abundant than glucose, so that its phosphorylation by hexokinase is not competitively inhibited to a significant extent by glucose. In this tissue, therefore, fructose 6-phosphate synthesis is the entry point into glycolysis for the monosaccharide. Conversely, when fructose is phosphorylated at C-6, it enters the glycolytic pathway upstream of PFK Fructose is the entry point into glycolysis for sorbitol , a sugar present in many fruits and vegetables, and used as a sweetener and stabilizer, too.

In the liver, sorbitol dehydrogenase EC 1. Galactose , for the most part derived from intestinal digestion of the lactose , once in the liver is converted, via the Leloir pathway , to glucose 1-phosphate.

For a more in-depth discussion of the Leloir pathway , see the article on galactose. The metabolic fate of glucose 1-phosphate depends on the energy status of the cell.

Under conditions promoting glucose storage, glucose 1-phosphate can be channeled to glycogen synthesis. Conversely, under conditions that favor the use of glucose as fuel, glucose 1-phosphate is isomerized to glucose 6-phosphate in the reversible reaction catalyzed by phosphoglucomutase EC 5.

Mannose is present in various dietary polysaccharides, glycolipids and glycoproteins. In the intestine, it is released from these molecules, absorbed, and, once reached the liver, is phosphorylated at C-6 to form mannose 6-phosphate, in the reaction catalyzed by hexokinase. Mannose 6-phosphate is then isomerized to fructose 6-phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by mannose 6-phosphate isomerase EC 5.

The flow of carbon through the glycolytic pathway is regulated in response to metabolic conditions, both inside and outside the cell, essentially to meet two needs: And in the liver, to avoid wasting energy, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are reciprocally regulated so that when one pathway is active, the other slows down.

As explained in the article on gluconeogenesis , during evolution this was achieved by selecting different enzymes to catalyze the essentially irreversible reactions of the two pathways, whose activity are regulated separately.

Indeed, if these reactions proceeded simultaneously at high speed, they would create a futile cycle or substrate cycle. A such fine regulation could not be achieved if a single enzyme operates in both directions. The control of the glycolytic pathway involves essentially the reactions catalyzed by hexokinase , PFK-1 , and pyruvate kinase , whose activity is regulated through:.

Glucokinase differs from the other hexokinase isozymes in kinetic and regulatory properties. Isoenzymes or isozymes are different proteins that catalyze the same reaction, and that generally differ in kinetic and regulatory properties, subcellular distribution, or in the cofactors used.

They may be present in the same species, in the same tissue or even in the same cell. Hexokinase I and II have a K m for glucose of 0. Therefore these isoenzymes work very efficiently at normal blood glucose levels, mM. Conversely, glucokinase has a high K m for glucose, approximately 10 mM ; this means that the enzyme works efficiently only when blood glucose concentration is high, for example after a meal rich in carbohydrates with a high glycemic index.

Hexokinases I-III are allosterically inhibited by glucose 6-phosphate , the product of their reaction. This ensures that glucose 6-phosphate does not accumulate in the cytosol when glucose is not needed for energy, for glycogen synthesis , for the pentose phosphate pathway , or as a source of precursors for biosynthetic pathways, leaving, at the same time, the monosaccharide in the blood, available for other organs and tissues.

For example, when PFK-1 is inhibited, fructose 6-phosphate accumulates and then, due to phosphoglucose isomerase reaction, glucose 6-phosphate accumulates. In skeletal muscle , the activity of hexokinase I and II is coordinated with that of GLUT4 , a low K m glucose transporter 5mM , whose translocation to the plasma membrane is induced by both insulin and physical activity. The combined action of GLUT4 on plasma membrane and hexokinase in the cytosol maintains a balance between glucose uptake and its phosphorylation.

Glucokinase differs in three respects from hexokinases I-III, and is particularly suitable for the role that the liver plays in glycemic control. The binding between glucokinase and GKRP is much tighter in the presence of fructose 6-phosphate , whereas it is weakened by glucose and fructose 1-phosphate.

In the absence of glucose, glucokinase is in its super-opened conformation that has low activity. The rise in cytosolic glucose concentration causes a concentration dependent transition of glucokinase to its close conformation, namely, its active conformation that is not accessible for glucokinase regulatory protein. Hence, glucokinase is active and no longer inhibited. Hence, fructose relieves the inhibition of glucokinase by glucokinase regulatory protein.

Example After a meal rich in carbohydrates , blood glucose levels rise, glucose enters the hepatocyte through GLUT2, and then moves inside the nucleus through the nuclear pores. In the nucleus glucose determines the transition of glucokinase to its close conformation, active and not accessible to GKRP, allowing glucokinase to diffuse in the cytosol where it phosphorylates glucose. Conversely, when glucose concentration declines, such as during fasting when blood glucose levels may drop below 4 mM, glucose concentration in hepatocytes is low, and fructose 6-phosphate binds to GKRP allowing it to bind tighter to glucokinase.

This results in a strong inhibition of the enzyme. This mechanism ensures that the liver, at low blood glucose levels, does not compete with other organs, primarily the brain, for glucose. In the cell, fructose 6-phosphate is in equilibrium with glucose 6-phosphate, due to phosphoglucose isomerase reaction. Through its association with GKRP, fructose 6-phosphate allows the cell to decrease glucokinase activity, so preventing the accumulation of intermediates.

To sum up, when blood glucose levels are normal, glucose is phosphorylated mainly by hexokinases I-III, whereas when blood glucose levels are high glucose can be phosphorylated by glucokinase as well. Phosphofructokinase 1 is the key control point of carbon flow through the glycolytic pathway. The enzyme, in addition to substrate binding sites, has several binding sites for allosteric effectors.

It should be noted that ATP, an end product of glycolysis, is also a substrate of phosphofructokinase 1. Indeed, the enzyme has two binding sites for the nucleotide: What do allosteric effectors signal?

The equilibrium constant, K eq , of the reaction is:. Therefore, considering that the total adenylate pool is constant over the short term, even a small reduction in ATP concentration leads, due to adenylate kinase activity, to a much larger relative increase in AMP concentration. Therefore, the activity of phosphofructokinase 1 depends on the cellular energy status:.

There are two reasons. A further control point of carbon flow through glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is the substrate cycle between phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate kinase for glycolysis, and by the combined action of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase EC 4. All isozymes of pyruvate kinase are allosterically inhibited by high concentrations of ATP , long-chain fatty acids , and acetyl-CoA , all signs that the cell is in an optimal energy status.

Alanine , too, that can be synthesized from pyruvate through a transamination reaction, is an allosteric inhibitor of pyruvate kinase; its accumulation signals that building blocks for biosynthetic pathways are abundant. Conversely, pyruvate kinase is allosterically activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate , the product of the first committed step of glycolysis. Therefore, F-1,6-BP allows pyruvate kinase to keep pace with the flow of intermediates.

It should be underlined that, at physiological concentration of PEP, ATP and alanine, the enzyme would be completely inhibited without the stimulating effect of F-1,6-BP.

The hepatic isoenzyme , but not the muscle isoenzyme, is also subject to regulation through phosphorylation by:. Phosphorylation of the enzyme decreases its activity, by increasing the K m for phosphoenolpyruvate, and slows down glycolysis.

For example, when the blood glucose levels are low, glucagon-induced phosphorylation decreases pyruvate kinase activity. The phosphorylated enzyme is also less readily stimulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate but more readily inhibited by alanine and ATP. Conversely, the dephosphorylated form of pyruvate kinase is more sensitive to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and less sensitive to ATP and alanine.

In this way, when blood glucose levels are low, the use of glucose for energy in the liver slows down, and the sugar is available for other tissues and organs, such as the brain. However, it should be noted that pyruvate kinase does not undergo glucagon-induced phosphorylation in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The dephosphorylated enzyme is more readily stimulated by its allosteric activators F-1,6-BP, and less readily inhibited by allosteric inhibitors alanine and ATP.

The role of the regulatory protein of glucokinase in the glucose sensory mechanism of the hepatocyte. Xylulose 5-phosphate mediates glucose-induced lipogenesis by xylulose 5-phosphate-activated protein phosphatase in rat liver. Glucose-induced dissociation of glucokinase from its regulatory protein in the nucleus of hepatocytes prior to nuclear export. Bisphosphoglycerate mutase controls serine pathway flux via 3-phosphoglycerate.

Biochem Soc Trans ;31 6: Inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. Control of liver 6-phosphofructokinase by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and other effectors. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that leads to the synthesis of glucose from pyruvate and other non-carbohydrate precursors, even in non-photosynthetic organisms.

It occurs in all microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals, and the reactions are essentially the same, leading to the synthesis of one glucose molecule from two pyruvate molecules. Glycogenolysis is quite distinct from gluconeogenesis: The following discussion will focus on gluconeogenesis that occurs in higher animals, and in particular in the liver of mammals. During fasting, as in between meals or overnight, the blood glucose levels are maintained within the normal range due to hepatic glycogenolysis, and to the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue and ketone bodies by the liver.

Fatty acids and ketone bodies are preferably used by skeletal muscle, thus sparing glucose for cells and tissues that depend on it, primarily red blood cells and neurons. However, after about 18 hours of fasting or during intense and prolonged exercise, glycogen stores are depleted and may become insufficient. At that point, if no carbohydrates are ingested, gluconeogenesis becomes important.

In higher animals, gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver, kidney cortex and epithelial cells of the small intestine, that is, the enterocytes. The key role of the liver is due to its size; in fact, on a wet weight basis, the kidney cortex produces more glucose than the liver. In the kidney cortex, gluconeogenesis occurs in the cells of the proximal tubule, the part of the nephron immediately following the glomerulus.

Much of the glucose produced in the kidney is used by the renal medulla, while the role of the kidney in maintaining blood glucose levels becomes more important during prolonged fasting and liver failure. It should, however, be emphasized that the kidney has no significant glycogen stores, unlike the liver, and contributes to maintaining blood glucose homeostasis only through gluconeogenesis and not through glycogenolysis.

Part of the gluconeogenesis pathway also occurs in the skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain, although at very low rate. In adults, muscle is about 18 the weight of the liver; therefore, its de novo synthesis of glucose might have quantitative importance.

However, the release of glucose into the circulation does not occur because these tissues, unlike liver, kidney cortex, and enterocytes, lack glucose 6-phosphatase EC 3.

Therefore, the production of glucose 6-phosphate, including that from glycogenolysis , does not contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose levels, and only helps to restore glycogen stores, in the brain small and limited mostly to astrocytes.

For these tissues, in particular for skeletal muscle due to its large mass, the contribution to blood glucose homeostasis results only from the small amount of glucose released in the reaction catalyzed by enzyme debranching EC 3. With regard to the cellular localization , most of the reactions occur in the cytosol, some in the mitochondria, and the final step within the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae.

The irreversibility of the glycolytic pathway is due to three strongly exergonic reactions, that cannot be used in gluconeogenesis, and listed below. In gluconeogenesis, these three steps are bypassed by enzymes that catalyze irreversible steps in the direction of glucose synthesis: Below, such reactions are analyzed. The first step of gluconeogenesis that bypasses an irreversible step of glycolysis, namely the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase , is the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate.

Phosphoenolpyruvate is synthesized through two reactions catalyzed, in order, by the enzymes:. Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, with the consumption of one ATP. The enzyme requires the presence of magnesium or manganese ions. The enzyme, discovered in by Merton Utter, is a mitochondrial protein composed of four identical subunits, each with catalytic activity.

An allosteric binding site for acetyl-CoA is also present in each subunit. It should be noted that the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase, leading to the production of oxaloacetate, also provides intermediates for the citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is present, approximately in the same amount, in mitochondria and cytosol of hepatocytes.

The isoenzymes are encoded by separate nuclear genes. PEP carboxykinase requires the presence of both magnesium and manganese ions. The reaction is reversible under normal cellular conditions.

During this reaction, a CO 2 molecule, the same molecule that is added to pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase, is removed. Carboxylation-decarboxylation sequence is used to activate pyruvate, since decarboxylation of oxaloacetate facilitates, makes thermodynamically feasible, the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate.

More generally, carboxylation-decarboxylation sequence promotes reactions that would otherwise be strongly endergonic, and also occurs in the citric acid cycle, in the pentose phosphate pathway , also called the hexose monophosphate pathway, and in the synthesis of fatty acids. The levels of PEP carboxykinase before birth are very low, while its activity increases several fold a few hours after delivery. This is the reason why gluconeogenesis is activated after birth.

The sum of the reactions catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is:. This is due to the fast consumption of phosphoenolpyruvate in other reactions, that maintains its concentration at very low levels.

Therefore, under cellular conditions, the synthesis of PEP from pyruvate is irreversible. It is noteworthy that the metabolic pathway for the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate depends on the precursor: The bypass reactions described below predominate when alanine or pyruvate is the glucogenic precursor.

These proteins , associating, form a hetero-oligomer that facilitates pyruvate transport. Pyruvate can also be produced from alanine in the mitochondrial matrix by transamination, in the reaction catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase EC 2. Since the enzymes involved in the later steps of gluconeogenesis, except glucosephosphatase , are cytosolic, the oxaloacetate produced in the mitochondrial matrix is transported into the cytosol.

If you spray sugar with water it will get sticky. Fruits, veggies, grains and exercise. The simplest formula for life there ever could be. Btw, Gokaleo is an excellent resource. That entire concept makes me feel ill, and very sad…. Scary that some people celebrate what is a well documented and highly dangerous disorder.

I nearly died of anorexia nervosa. I am now as recovered as I guess it is possible to be. I wasted years of my life in a hospital bed wanting nothing but thinness.

Now I am cramming as much life into what years I have left knowing that anorexia stole about 25 years of my life. There is nothing clever about being anorectic. It is a cowardly way of copping out of life and the challenges that it throws up.

If you are too weak to face fear, love, loss, grief , success and failure then, by all means choose anorexia but do not do so with pride because it is a choice made out of cowardice. Her pro-ana suggestions are what tipped me off to her firstly in regards to her unhealthy agenda.

See I eat dinner between 7 and 8pm. In general, diets who promise results too fast are not very serious and sometimes dangerous. Are there problems with mass produced agriculture? Yes, as with any business, including the organic and holistic market.

Are all GMOs a healthy and safe alternative to organic? Unclear, as they are a relatively new addition to the market and many individual GMOs are still undergoing investigation.

However, the evidence does not point to GMOs being unhealthy or dangerous as of yet. Your host probably spent a good part of their day to cook this meal for you, you can suck it up and eat some unless you have a dangerous food allergy, then you are clear, but lying about food allergies is also a total no-no.

A few extra calories will not kill you. I also find it alarming that there are pro-anorexia websites out there. Anorexia is dangerous, and emaciation is not beautiful. That people are encouraging it is sickening. This is a great and really interesting article.

Most of us want to be healthy, and want to take as much advice as possible, but we have to remember that not all advice is good advice. I actually started laughing out loud at this part. Given the choice between white flour and refined sugar or lemon juice and a few oats, I know what I would choose.

Yeah, you can have your choice, but at the end of the day, there is still no scientific veracity to detox. Go ahead and try to prove it. How is that offensive? But whatever, not that important… 3 Great article!

When people do this, and a LOT of people do, it makes restaurant staff not take real food allergies seriously. Pulling bullshit like this can harm people with allergies. This is all stuff I carry with me everywhere I go. I blame the people who lie about allergies who have caused this jaded attitude among restaurant workers. The only way to really protect myself now is to simply never eat out. It is only an issue for people with Celiac Disease, though it has been known to help people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome as well.

But to go and trumpet it around like it is so important infuriates me. When I go to a restaurant, I ask specifically for a dish to be served with no nuts because I do not like then. I do speak up when they make a mistake and served my dish with peanuts when I said no nuts as they could have killed someone. I also ask for cheddar cheese when available as I am lactose intolerant and might have forgotten to bring a lactase supplement.

I doubt there are a lot of restaurants with rice or corn made bread for which to have a hamburger or sandwich. It really shrinks down the menu choices for you. I find your celiac and opinion at odds. If everyone claimed to have celiac sensitivity restaurants would be forced to do away with flour which is probably a good thing for everyone. Much as I hate Food Babe, there is some possible scientific merit to the concept of a hour fast. I actually just read about an experiment a couple of days ago that the Salk Institute performed on lab mice.

The New York Times wrote an article about it:. The basic idea is that even with the mice consuming the same amount of calories, when their foot intake period was limited to hours of the day, the limited mice experienced benefits including weight loss and stabilization. Thank you so much for debunking BS like this.

We need more ppl like you. As a mental health practitioner, Her website has so many red flags. For example, The Food Babe has essentially declared over foods, products, companies, restaurants, etc. When I look at her website, all I see are restrictions, restrictions, and more restrictions.

Many of the characteristics of this are similar to someone with OCD. In addition, I am worried for those that stumble across her page or are her devout followers and take her word as the complete and utter truth. This is nothing more than a manifesto and in my eyes, preys on those who lack critical thinking skills and the ability to form opinions for themselves. You can either disprove a hypothesis or garner evidence to support your claim. What stands firm however, is that a claim can always be refuted.

Science does not rest on its laurels, it is ever changing: A paradigm shift is healthy and is expected in science. To be so sure of something and to assert that you know the ultimate truth means you have lost the overarching spirit of science. If anything, she could really use a course in logic, because her blog is filled with logical fallacies and pseudoscience.

I agree with her that transparency is important, but the methodology in which she is doing it may be causing more harm than good…and that is what terrifies me. There is nothing warm and fuzzy that I can discern from this woman. The way I interpreted her blog is that food is dangerous and unless you listen to me and follow my rules, your body will shut down on you.

So much shaming and fear mongering, yet little empowerment…and that bothers me, both as a human and a mental health professional. I thought she full of crap! I figured she is trying to stay thin, young and pretty by doing whatever it takes. She used the book and people who are dumb enough to believe what she writes. I despised her blog—it was super long and irritating. In fact, I found her to be irritating!! She was way over the top with enthusiasm about what she thought was bad food which turned out to be every food we eat.

So what is left-growing our own food in cartons at home? I mean Food Baby, by the way, not facebook, but that too. There was a stage of my life where I was absolutely terrified to eat anything. Throughout this period I was eating nothing but tiny handfuls of organic raw spinach with a few drops of apple cider vinegar. I personally doubt these bloggers realise just how much they can influence their followers, and I really doubt they hold any true malice within their cause money making on the other hand….

But there does need to be some awareness that this constant misinformation really can impact those who are vulnerable. But I did just release a song on youtube about it: But I am defending fasting. Anyway, the Fasting is a thing and there are studies and science behind it. How Intermittent Fasting is NOT pro-anorexia is you still consume the same number of calories in that feeding window. I just want to point out a few things, though; refining flour strips it of its nutrients and extruding it renders it toxic.

So, in a way, processed flour does ruin your health. I think definitions are one of the integral issues causing the spread of misinformation, especially in the health sector. The problem is that this type of communication ends up being more accessible, but ambiguous, ill-defined, and usually incorrect. I mean, only relatively recently have studies even shown the differentiated effects of intermittent fasting on male and female hormone production, and by following the insights of clinical research I had been potentially harming my body.

Perhaps if more time was taken to define concepts in a way that is very easy to understand and implement, less people would follow the claims of pseudoscience. She has studied and protested, she made some of the ingredients in fast food joints less fattening, and less likely to kill you. Ive listened to you on podcasts. Your work is entertaining. I grew up in the 90s and we punished ourselves with mashing, fasting, binging, smoking.

It s a way of testing limits to get attention, irresponsible behavior instead of asking for help. But then we went to college, got cars and lost teenage low self esteem!

I was aghast to see pro anorexia site.

Am I retaining water?