Jill on Thu, 11th Oct Instead, they found that birds chose soils with higher concentrations of sodium. Do I wait until she is in pain and feels horrible? Structure and mechanical behavior of a toucan beak. Ginger Ginger is a powerful digestion-enhancing herb and has been scientifically proven to promote gastric emptying and motility.
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The gut is an endoderm -derived structure. At approximately the sixteenth day of human development, the embryo begins to fold ventrally with the embryo's ventral surface becoming concave in two directions: The result is that a piece of the yolk sac , an endoderm -lined structure in contact with the ventral aspect of the embryo, begins to be pinched off to become the primitive gut.
The yolk sac remains connected to the gut tube via the vitelline duct. Usually this structure regresses during development; in cases where it does not, it is known as Meckel's diverticulum. During fetal life, the primitive gut is gradually patterned into three segments: Although these terms are often used in reference to segments of the primitive gut, they are also used regularly to describe regions of the definitive gut as well.
Each segment of the gut is further specified and gives rise to specific gut and gut-related structures in later development. Components derived from the gut proper, including the stomach and colon , develop as swellings or dilatations in the cells of the primitive gut. In contrast, gut-related derivatives — that is, those structures that derive from the primitive gut but are not part of the gut proper, in general develop as out-pouchings of the primitive gut.
The blood vessels supplying these structures remain constant throughout development. The gastrointestinal tract has a form of general histology with some differences that reflect the specialization in functional anatomy. The mucosa is the innermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract. The mucosa surrounds the lumen , or open space within the tube. This layer comes in direct contact with digested food chyme. The mucosa is made up of:.
The mucosae are highly specialized in each organ of the gastrointestinal tract to deal with the different conditions. The most variation is seen in the epithelium. The submucosa consists of a dense irregular layer of connective tissue with large blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves branching into the mucosa and muscularis externa.
It contains the submucosal plexus , an enteric nervous plexus , situated on the inner surface of the muscularis externa. The muscular layer consists of an inner circular layer and a longitudinal outer layer. The circular layer prevents food from traveling backward and the longitudinal layer shortens the tract.
The layers are not truly longitudinal or circular, rather the layers of muscle are helical with different pitches. The inner circular is helical with a steep pitch and the outer longitudinal is helical with a much shallower pitch. Whilst the muscularis externa is similar throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract, an exception is the stomach which has an additional inner oblique muscular layer to aid with grinding and mixing of food. The muscularis externa of the stomach is composed of the inner oblique layer, middle circular layer and outer longitudinal layer.
Between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers is the myenteric plexus. Activity is initiated by the pacemaker cells, myenteric interstitial cells of Cajal. The gut has intrinsic peristaltic activity basal electrical rhythm due to its self-contained enteric nervous system.
The rate can be modulated by the rest of the autonomic nervous system. The coordinated contractions of these layers is called peristalsis and propels the food through the tract. Food in the GI tract is called a bolus ball of food from the mouth down to the stomach.
After the stomach, the food is partially digested and semi-liquid, and is referred to as chyme. In the large intestine the remaining semi-solid substance is referred to as faeces. The outermost layer of the gastrointestinal tract consists of several layers of connective tissue.
Intraperitoneal parts of the GI tract are covered with serosa. These include most of the stomach , first part of the duodenum , all of the small intestine , caecum and appendix , transverse colon , sigmoid colon and rectum.
In these sections of the gut there is clear boundary between the gut and the surrounding tissue. These parts of the tract have a mesentery. Retroperitoneal parts are covered with adventitia. They blend into the surrounding tissue and are fixed in position. For example, the retroperitoneal section of the duodenum usually passes through the transpyloric plane. These include the esophagus , pylorus of the stomach, distal duodenum , ascending colon , descending colon and anal canal.
In addition, the oral cavity has adventitia. Specific proteins expressed in the stomach and duodenum involved in defence include mucin proteins, such as mucin 6 and intelectin Finally, transit through the colon takes 12 to 50 hours with wide variation between individuals. The gastrointestinal tract forms an important part of the immune system. There are additional factors contributing to protection from pathogen invasion. For example, low pH ranging from 1 to 4 of the stomach is fatal for many microorganisms that enter it.
Beneficial bacteria also can contribute to the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal immune system. For example Clostridia , one of the most predominant bacterial groups in the GI tract, play an important role in influencing the dynamics of the gut's immune system.
This is due to the production of short-chain fatty acids during the fermentation of plant-derived nutrients such as butyrate and propionate. Basically, the butyrate induces the differentiation of Treg cells by enhancing histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the FOXP3 locus, thus regulating the T cells , resulting in the reduction of the inflammatory response and allergies.
The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that can deal with molecules that the human body cannot otherwise break down. These bacteria also account for the production of gases at host-pathogen interface , inside our intestine this gas is released as flatulence when eliminated through the anus.
However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material which is regulated by the hypothalamus and the re absorption of sodium , as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum. Health-enhancing intestinal bacteria of the gut flora serve to prevent the overgrowth of potentially harmful bacteria in the gut. These two types of bacteria compete for space and "food," as there are limited resources within the intestinal tract.
Enzymes such as CYP3A4 , along with the antiporter activities, are also instrumental in the intestine's role of drug metabolism in the detoxification of antigens and xenobiotics. There are many diseases and conditions that can affect the gastrointestinal system, including infections , inflammation and cancer. Various pathogens can cause gastroenteritis an inflammation of the stomach and small intestine. These can include those organisms that cause foodborne illnesses.
Gastroenteritis is the most common disease of the GI tract. Diverticular disease is a condition that is very common in older people in industrialized countries. Most pseudocysts caused by acute pancreatitis resolve spontaneously without treatment within several weeks. Pseudocysts that need treatment are those that persist beyond six weeks and are causing symptoms such as pain, obstruction of the stomach or duodenum, or have become infected. How are pancreatic cysts diagnosed? Since the majority of pancreatic cysts are small and produce no symptoms, they often are discovered incidentally when abdominal scans ultrasound [US], computerized tomography or CT, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI are performed to investigate unrelated symptoms.
Unfortunately, ultrasound, CT, and MRI cannot reliably distinguish benign cysts cysts that usually need no treatment from precancerous and cancerous cysts cysts that usually require surgical removal. Endoscopic ultrasound EUS is becoming increasingly useful in determining whether a pancreatic cyst is likely to be benign, precancerous, or cancerous.
From this location, which is very close to the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder, accurate and detailed images can be obtained of the liver, pancreas and the gallbladder. During endoscopic ultrasound, fluid from cysts and samples of tissue also can be obtained by passing special needles through the endoscope and into the cysts.
The process of obtaining tissue or fluid with a thin needle is called fine needle aspiration FNA. The fluid obtained by FNA can be analyzed for cancerous cells cytology , amylase content, and for tumor markers. Tumor markers, such as CEA carcinoembryonic antigen , are proteins produced in large quantities by cancer cells. For example, pancreatic pseudocyst fluid will typically have high amylase levels but low CEA levels. A benign serous cyst adenoma will have low amylase and low CEA levels, whereas a precancerous or cancerous mucinous cyst adenoma will have low amylase levels but high CEA levels.
Most recently, DNA from cells that are aspirated from the cyst has been analyzed for changes suggestive of cancer. The risks of endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration are small and consist of a very small incidence of bleeding and infection. Occasionally, it is difficult even with the diagnostic tools of endoscopic ultrasound and fine needle aspiration to determine if a pancreatic cyst is cancerous or precancerous.
If the answer is not clear, sometimes repeated endoscopic ultrasound and aspiration are done if the suspicion for cancer or precancer is high. In other cases, the cyst is reexamined by CT, MRI, or even endoscopic ultrasound after a few months to detect changes that more strongly suggest that cancer has developed. In still others, surgery is recommended. What is the treatment for pancreatic cysts? The most important aspect of management of pancreatic cysts is the determination of whether a cyst is benign and usually needs no treatment or if it is precancerous or cancerous and must be removed.
The second most important aspect of management is to determine whether a patient with a precancerous or cancerous pancreatic cyst is a suitable surgical candidate. In medical centers experienced in performing pancreatic surgery, surgical removal of precancerous or cancerous cysts results in a high rate of cure. Very small cysts can be followed to detect an increase in size that may indicate cancer or an increased risk of developing cancer.
Management decisions must be individualized for each patient after discussions with a doctor familiar with the patient's health status. The following are examples of how a doctor might manage pancreatic cysts. Were you diagnosed with an inflammatory or non-inflammatory pancreatic cyst?
Please share your experience. Abdominal pain can have many causes that range from mild to severe. Some of these causes include bloating, gas, colitis, endometriosis, food poisoning, GERD, IBS irritable bowel syndrome , ovarian cysts, abdominal adhesions, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, gallbladder disease, liver disease, and cancers. Signs and symptoms of the more serious causes include dehydration, bloody or black tarry stools, severe abdominal pain, pain with no urination or painful urination.
Pancreatitis is a rare disease in which the pancreas becomes inflamed. There are two types of pancreatitis: Symptoms of pancreatitis include abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and a rapid pulse.
Treatment of pancreatitis often requires hospitalization. Problem Foods to Avoid Patient Comments: Pancreatic Cysts - Diagnosis Patient Comments: Pancreatic Cysts - Symptoms Patient Comments: Pancreatic Cysts - Types Patient Comments: Pseudocysts True cysts How are pancreatic cysts diagnosed? Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story. Take the Tummy Trouble Quiz. Problem Foods to Avoid. Readers Comments 5 Share Your Story.
Readers Comments 53 Share Your Story. Classification of Pancreatic Cysts. Worst Foods for Digestion. Post View 1 Comment Pancreatic Cysts - Types Were you diagnosed with an inflammatory or non-inflammatory pancreatic cyst? Two weeks later she had another day on the IVs. Each time she came home exhausted and very tired, but I kept at it and it only took two treatements in her case.
I was told adding egg would add amino acids as well, but she would not eat them. I took her off the silamarin as the holistic vet felt it was of minimum help. Finally, after noticing a lot of water consumption and urination the vet put her on baytril for a week or so. That was the final push and she started to get well quickly. Her enzymes are still somewhat elevated, and she does now have very mild diabetes but a small shot of insulin 2x daily is a small price to pay for keeping my girl around for a while.
Her feet are totally healed and she got a great checkup yesterday at the vet. Her energy is back and she is eating well tho still picky …so miracles do happen. Your dog can recover with the right treatments. If you would like a referral to my holistic vet, Dr. Chalmers in Santa Rosa,CA let me know. I think she is great, affordable and she treats by phone. They have treated many of my older dogs and I have nothing but admiration for them. Katie is nearing 15 now, and I know I will eventually lose her, but not today.
We have a bit more time together. Keep the faith and explore options. One other suggestion for those of you trying to get your dogs to take pills like denamarin. It is a very large pill. There are smaller doses available that can be given as two pills. I also use cheese and raw hamburger. Day three when i got him, took him for vaccinations and he got realy sick. Same thing happened on second set of vaccinations. I thought attributed all this to adverse reaction to vaccinations.
A few days ago, he had no appetite, no energy, and ended up having a seizure. During this time, we had him on the same diet the breeder had the puppy on, which was puppy chow. Long story short, we took him to the vet and had tests ran. Liver enzymes were extremely elevated and vet says it will be a huge financial investment if we keep him. My question is, is there something we can do to treat liver damage, put some weight on him, and prolong his life without him suffering?
I have a 3 yr old dog and switched his food to Orijen few months back. He went in for his yearly blood panel and his liver enzymes were very high. Be wary on vets who just want to test. There is endless amount of money to be made. My lab has had highly elevated alk phos for 14 months. We found it during a routine pre-surgery check. She was put on Denosyl and retested in a few weeks.
Same result- alk phos off the charts. Still eating and weight is the same for the last 2 years. I switched her to Source Naturals SamE 12 months ago instead of the Denosyl due to price, twice a day on an empty stomach. Any comments on this? We have a 10y. She eats Natural Choice dry food.
At every lab test her enzyme levels just keep going up. Btw, her enzyme levels have always been elevated, even before she started Prozac. Originally the vet thought she might have Cushings — excessive thirst, lethargy, etc.
Her bloodwork in June came back with levels at , the most recent How can that be — numbers tripled in two months?? The day she stops eating will be the end.
Just need some answers like so many of you… I have a 5 yr. Started have bloodwork done and recently found her Alk. She seems happy and healthy to the appearance. Anyone else have a similar situation? My 9 year old corgi mix was on a high dose of pred for allergies. Just after stopping the meds he became excessively bloated. Blood work only indicates slightly higher liver enzymes. He is so bloated he can barley walk. He is alert but sometimes tired. There are so many variations in diagnosis and treatment as well as length of life after a diagnosis.
What I would like to do is refer you to an online group that is very experienced with this type of issue. This group is specifically for owners of dogs with liver disease and many of the members have owned and cared for multiple dogs at different stages of the disease. I know that there are members of the group that share your diagnosis and I feel they would be most helpful in giving you some good information.
I would encourage you to join this group, give your information and ask the members your question s. They often ask detailed questions about liver values, tests, etc so be sure to have that information handy and they can give you some suggestions and their experiences as well. From the time I have been involved with this group, I have seen how caring and helpful they can be and most people are able to glean some very useful information and support while participating in their discussions.
The treatment for most liver disease issues, other than copper storage disease rare and cancer is pretty much the same — supplementation and prescription meds, as well as dietary changes.
Sometimes these things alone can reduce the effects on the liver and bring the liver enzymes down. Sam-e is a fairly common recommendation, along with milk thistle. These are fairly inexpensive supplements that can be purchased at many health food stores as well as places like Wal-mart, Costco and Target stores.
These supplements help to detoxify the liver and aid in regeneration. Here are some recommendations on dosage:. Liver dogs need to eat more frequently in smaller amounts than normal dogs and they need certain, more-digestible, forms of protein. Here are some suggestions from our website:. Some dogs that I have known with DIRE s and symptoms have outlived dogs with lower numbers and less symptoms, there is just no rhyme or reason sometimes.
Do not be afraid to ask questions, make suggestions and even demand tests and medications if you feel you are not getting the results you deserve. I hope that you can get some comfort and answers with this information. I will keep you and your family and your pup in my thoughts. Call Wilma Jean Dodds with hemopet in California she is the reason my dog lived to be 18 with severe liver disease since she was 6 yrs old. I so wish I had found your website a couple of months ago!
I just said good bye to a beloved, family member, Spanky. She was found at a Petsmart adoption at 7 and was 14 when she passed. Having her go to sleep in my arms was sad beyond belief. Had I known about this site, I would have asked my vet more questions earlier in the year, and done more sooner, other than liver pills that really only seemed to make her sicker.
She stopped drinking water, would only eat baby food from our finger, and just became confused and scared. Her little spirit has left a hole so much larger than her 12 pds. I to am having problems and not sure what to look for as far as know if my dog is getting better or not. He had what I thought was another attack during new years weekend and I got him into the vets as soon as I could and they did a full blood panal and found his pancreas was fine but he has a chronic liver infection his ALT was Does anyone what what signs to look for to see if he is getting better?
We got a wonderful 3 year old red Australian Cattle Dog, Wally, from the humane society. Wonderful, except he drinks excessive water and excessive urination. We limited his water to 8 oz in the am and pm, but he still needs to go out about every hour. He also dribbles in the house at times. We took him to the vet and found he has liver enzymes of about and his urine was like water clear and low s.
Took him back a couple of weeks later and his urine was normal, so this is not diabetes insipidus. I have him on denosyl mg and may get his liver enzymes tested again…but he is the picture of health otherwise. The frequent urination is driving us crazy! My 13 year old jack russell had elevated alkphos and Alt Had surgery for a mass on his liver but they had to leave it in, it was non cancerous, as were some nodules that they biopsied.
He did come out with a case of pancreatitis, and now it has been 3 months on a low fat diet and the liver enzyme numbers are slowly coming down. I have an aussie collie mix and she has been so sick. We went to the vet today and her liver test came back 13, Is that even possible.
Should she be dead? The vet gave us fructose: She is on tramadol for hip pain and steroids. She is 13 and the only dog i have ever owned. I have changed her diet and monitor her water because she is really thirsty but throws it up after drinking. I would love some suggestions. She breathes hard and only wants to go out to use the bathroom then right back in.
I thought i would get some sam-e and milk thistle and try it. Not sure what to do. Gail on Mon, 10th Feb 1: My border collie was vomiting and not eating a couple of weeks ago, so took him in to the vets — they said his ALT values were about 2, Now it is a couple of weeks later, he seems to be feeling much better — eating, drinking, asking for treats.
I took him in for tests — ad they said his ALT was still about 2, although he is doing better clinically? Can anyone shed some light on what may be going on? I have a 9-year-old Australian Cattle Dog. She has been diagnosed with chronic active hepatitis and cirrosis. She as had many many tests: I took her off the prednisone, and within a couple of days, she was vomiting and very sick. Do I wait until she is in pain and feels horrible? Do I wait for a panicked horrible situation where I have to rush her in and she is not stabilized, or do I do it now?
After four months, her numbers are still very elevated. She is my BABY, but this disease is chronic. Susan on Wed, 1st Oct 9: I just lost my most beloved canine Ebony, best and truest friend, loyal companion, playmate and life partner for 14 years. The following day, she had not improved and they advised that she had pancreatitis and UTI and her fever had not gone done, despite IVD, antibiotics and painkillers too.
I knew she probably would not last the night, but I was hopeful. Even though I am grieving for her I still realise how lucky I was to have her for as long as I did. We said our goodbyes, it was so hard, but it made her happy …yes even near the end she still gave me that look of contentment…..
A couple of hours later I received that dreaded phohe call. I was in shock, but agreed to allow them to do an autopsy. They found that one of her kidneys had failed and was infected with multiple abcesses, and her pancreas was very swollen. Until reading this site, I was blaming myself for having not taken her to the vet for about 8 months, but knowing that it may not have made a significant difference, and even may have resulted in her being euthanised earlier in her life, I can now accept that my puppy is gone, and that I am not to blame for her death……but can be happy that she lived a life that was full of love affection plenty of play and loyalty from all who met her.
She was my companian and her death has affected me more than I could ever have imagined, I can only say that the only thing that might be harder is to lose one of my children. Thank you Ebony for giving so freely of your heart, your loyalty and your devotion….. He was a very healthy and energetic dog until monday of this week today is Sunday. When we fed him monday, tuesday, and wednesday he got sick every time after we fed him. On Wednesday we tried to only feed him bland meat so it would be easy for him to digest but he still got sick.
He became very lethargic and stopped barking. He drank a lot more and his urine became an odd color. On thursday we took him to the vet and they took several tests and found out on Friday that his liver was no longer functioning. After going in for more tests and shots on saturday we left him there over night. The undersides of his ears are yellow and his abdomen is swollen and red.
We took him home for his last night. He has barely moved and we have to help him get up, move him, and lay down.
It is heartbreaking to see him get like this so quickly. The vets say there is no way to figure out if it is just from old age or if someone poisoned him since neighbors had recently complained of his barking to animal control.
Please bring your dogs to the vet as soon as you have a sign that they are not healthy. You never know when it could be something as heart shattering as this. I grew up with him as my companion since I was 5 and it is devastating to have to let him go but there is no hope for him and he would only suffer if we let him.
I love you clifford. And if anyone finds it okay to poison these innocent creatures than you are sick and deserve the worst. I am so thankful to this website and everyone on it! My precious Yorkie, Emma Marie, just turned 5 years old I was told she might not make it to her first birthday. Emma is having some health issues re: It scares me to go ahead and give. Any advice greatly appreciated. I have a terrier mix he was diagnosed with Liver enzymes that were elevated and a lymph node that was inflammed.
The vet says she has moderate liver disease. He is acting like he want to eat everything but when left down to him he doesnt eat. They done a scan on his liver and it looked pretty normal and they couldnt see any tumors. Sheis in great form but just acting like a picky eater but never was. He picks at pedigree but very little. He doesnt want chicken. He will eat brown bread loaf,ham,brocolli but i know these arent great.
Any help would be appreciated! I feed him a home cooked meal , with all the supplements , designed by a veterinary nutritionist. My vet is not worried about this , he thinks that because of his age he will be having this elevated levels in the future. My little Maltese was really sick because he stop eating. He was 11 yrs old. If I can think to what happen. Weeks ago he kept drinking water and peeing every few hrs. He did this through the night. I thought that he was old. Next few weeks, I gave him a Sprinkle cupcake made for dogs and it was very small 3 inch.
The following morning he threw up and kept drinks drinking water and throw it up. He then ate less food each day ad his urine was darker yellow. The Vet said he has diabetes and pancreatis. His liver enzymes were very high.
He suggest to bring him to emergcy and have him get him to lower the high level of enzymes. He got help and we said goodbye for the over night ICU care. He look better with insulin and left him with good care. The next call from Vet said he might need surgery on his gallbladder.
He went to see him and his eye look cloudy and his mouth was bleeding. We decided to put him to sleep to stop the pain. His condition did not look better and his enzymes went up higher.
It was the hardest time in my life. I hated seeing my dog in pain and they say he had hepatitis too. My little girl 10 yr old Shih tzu.