What is carboplatin?
Avoid dosages greater than those found in food because safety and efficacy are unproven. Concomitant use of phenylpropanolamine and cocoa may cause an additive increase in blood pressure because of the caffeine content. Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Use of chocolate as an inhaler has been studied. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: The cocoa tree grows to heights exceeding 8 m. By clicking Subscribe, I agree to the Drugs.
You should not receive carboplatin if you have severe bleeding or bone marrow suppression. Do not use carboplatin if you are pregnant. It could harm the unborn baby. Use effective birth control , and tell your doctor if you become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether carboplatin passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while being treated with carboplatin.
Carboplatin is injected into a vein through an IV. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting. You may be given other medications to prevent nausea or vomiting while you are receiving carboplatin. This can make it easier for you to bleed from an injury or get sick from being around others who are ill. Your blood may need to be tested often. Your kidney and liver function may also need to be tested.
Avoid being near people who are sick or have infections. Tell your doctor at once if you develop signs of infection. Carboplatin can cause side effects that may impair your vision.
Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be able to see clearly. For at least 48 hours after you receive a dose, avoid allowing your body fluids to come into contact with your hands or other surfaces.
Caregivers should wear rubber gloves while cleaning up a patient's body fluids, handling contaminated trash or laundry or changing diapers.
Wash hands before and after removing gloves. Wash soiled clothing and linens separately from other laundry. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
Side effects in more detail. Carboplatin can harm your kidneys. This effect is increased when you also use certain other medicines, including: This list is not complete. Other drugs may interact with carboplatin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins , and herbal products.
Although, the relatively high stearic acid content in cocoa products was once purported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease CHD , it is no longer considered to play a role in the reduction of CHD risk. Research suggests that the flavonoid constituents, in particular flavanols, in cocoa may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease.
Consumption of foods rich in flavanols are also associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, 5 , 40 suggesting that this specific group of flavonoids may have potent cardioprotective qualities. Multiple epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
In a study of elderly men, blood pressure was measured at baseline and then 5 years later, with causes of death ascertained during 15 years of follow-up. The mean systolic blood pressure in the highest tertile of cocoa intake was 3. When compared with that of the lowest tertile, the adjusted relative risk for men in the highest tertile was 0. In another study, 4 34, cardiovascular disease-free postmenopausal women were followed for 16 years.
After multivariate analysis, a borderline inverse relationship between chocolate intake and cardiovascular disease mortality was observed. Numerous intervention trials have shown that consumption of flavanol-containing cocoa products can improve endothelial function, 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 vascular function, 44 , 47 , 48 and insulin sensitivity 47 ; as well as attenuate platelet reactivity 46 , 47 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 and reduce blood pressure.
Populations that consume cocoa routinely excrete more nitric oxide NO metabolites than genetically similar groups with less consumption. This indicator of higher NO production is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Results of another study demonstrated that daily consumption of a high-flavanol cocoa drink led to a sustained reversal of endothelial dysfunction, reaching a plateau level of improved flow-mediated dilation after 5 days.
Increases observed in circulating nitrite, but not in circulating nitrate, paralleled the observed flow-mediated dilation augmentation. In a study of smokers, the ingestion of a flavanol-rich cocoa drink increased the circulating pool of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent vasodilation.
A study comparing the effects of dark and white chocolate on flow-mediated dilation found that dark chocolate improved flow-mediated dilation after 2 hours compared with baseline, with the effect lasting about 8 hours. White chocolate had no effect on flow-mediated dilation. In the previous study, 2 hours after ingestion of dark chocolate, the shear stress-dependent platelet function was also reduced.
No effect was seen with white chocolate. In a study evaluating the effect of cocoa ingestion on modulated human platelet activation and primary hemostasis, cocoa consumption suppressed ADP- or epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation and platelet microparticle formation, and had an aspirin-like effect on primary hemostasis.
Findings were similar in another study of 32 healthy subjects who consumed mg of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins or placebo per day for 28 days. The active group had lower P-selectin expression and lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. In a crossover study, 15 healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume g of dark chocolate or 90 g of white chocolate for 15 days after a 7-day, cocoa-free, run-in phase.
They were then crossed over after another 7-day, cocoa-free, period. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was lower after dark chocolate ingestion. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index was also higher after dark chocolate ingestion. Consumption of chocolate bars resulted in reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In one study of normotensive subjects, systolic blood pressure decreased 8.
Similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure were noted at 4 weeks 8. Because the study population was not hypertensive, the results are notable. A meta-analysis was performed of 5 randomized, controlled studies involving subjects. After cocoa diets, the mean systolic blood pressure was 4.
Theobromine, the primary alkaloid in cocoa, is a weak CNS stimulant, with only one-tenth the cardiac effects of other methylxanthines eg, caffeine, theophylline. Theobromine has activity similar to that seen with caffeine ie, increases in energy, motivation to work, and alertness. Theobromine, when ingested in the form of a large chocolate bar, did not cause any acute hemodynamic or electrophysiologic cardiac changes in young, healthy adults. Use of chocolate as an inhaler has been studied.
This edible inhaler, the Chocuhaler , produced a clinical effect when used to administer albuterol. Ingredients in chocolate with potential psychoactive properties have been identified, including the biogenic stimulant amines caffeine, theobromine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine; however, their concentrations are likely to be too low to have an effect.
A study in which a depressive mood was induced demonstrated a correlation with an increase in chocolate craving. It has been demonstrated that thoughts of chocolate are overpowering and prey on the mind.
Questionnaires filled out by study subjects have shown that there is a weakness for chocolate in individuals who are under emotional stress, bored, upset, or feeling down. A similar result also has been shown with cocaine craving. Studies are needed to test the importance of this activity related to eating disorders and obesity. Free radical damage has been implicated as a cause of cognitive decline and memory loss in aging.
A study using functional magnetic imaging in healthy young people found that ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa was associated with increased cerebral blood flow, 58 suggesting that cocoa may play a role in the treatment of cerebral impairment, including dementia and stroke. Data suggest that flavonoid-rich food contributes to cancer prevention. An in vitro study showed that breast cancer cells are selectively susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of cocoa-derived pentameric procyanidin and suggest that inhibition of cellular proliferation by this compound is associated with the sire-specific dephosphorylation or down-regulation of several cell cycle regulatory proteins.
In rats, the magnesium contained in cocoa has been shown to prevent and correct chronic magnesium deficiency. The use of cocoa to treat or prevent magnesium deficiency in humans has not been explored. Cocoa products are used extensively in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Cocoa powder and cocoa butter are often mixed with chocolate liquor ground cacao seeds , sugar, milk, and other flavors. Cocoa butter is also used as a suppository and ointment base, as an emollient, and as an ingredient in various topical cosmetic preparations.
The polyphenols in chocolate come from the cocoa liquor; therefore, the polyphenol content is highest in cocoa powder, followed by dark chocolate, then milk chocolate, with none in white chocolate. In the Zutphen elderly, an inverse relationship was demonstrated between cocoa intake and blood pressure, as well as a year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the median cocoa intake among users was 2.
Due to cocoa's caffeine content, many interactions are theoretically possible if large doses are consumed. The following drugs may increase the effects of caffeine in cocoa because they decrease the metabolism or clearance of caffeine: Use of large amounts of cocoa with monoamine oxidase inhibitors may precipitate a hypertensive crisis because of cocoa's tyramine content.