Things to Know
Once I make a commitment to something, I'm committed regardless. These improvements were maintained at the 1-year follow-up assessment. Niels Bohr The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. The researchers found no relation between skin conductivity changes and the type of substance contained in the vial and found wide variations in the same individual between the first and second tests of most individuals. Essentially, they are saying that we can turn off the "overdrive" with limbic system retraining by forming new pathways in the brain and when this is accomplished then symptoms of MCS, CFS etc.
Quack "Electrodiagnostic" Devices
These findings suggest that intersegmental motions produced by spinal manipulation may play a prominent role in eliciting physiologic responses. Some are conceptual models, such as the Vertebral Subluxation Complex model of Faye and Lantz, [ 2 which proposes as many as nine components interacting in a complex.
Muscle spindle afferents and Golgi tendon organ afferents are stimulated by spinal manipulation. Smaller-diameter sensory nerve fibers are likely activated, although this has not been demonstrated directly. Mechanical and chemical changes in the intervertebral foramen caused by a herniated intervertebral disc can affect the dorsal roots and dorsal root ganglia, but it is not known if spinal manipulation directly affects these changes.
Effect of Chiropractic Treatment on the Endocrine and Immune System in Asthmatic Patients Proceedings of the International Conference on Spinal Manipulation The broad aims of this FCER funded study is to determine whether stress is a factor in the pathophysiology of asthma and to determine if chiropractic management of asthmatics can alleviate stress induced asthma.
More specifically for this meeting, our study aims to determine whether chiropractic treatment has beneficial effects on the endocrine system through measurement of salivary cortisol and on the immune system via salivary IgA determination. You can review other articles on this topic at the Chiropractic and Asthma Page. The Functional Spinal Lesion: It also can sustain a variety of hypothetical and evidence-based challenges. These findings offer an opportunity to reconceptualize and refine theoretical models of the spinal lesion into a platform for scientific, clinical, and political advancement of the profession.
Most of the spines inspected were already prescreened to eliminate those that were definitely known to have nerve compression problems. In the normal range of motion the pressures generated in the IVF may exceed 30 mm Hg. When considering the concept of a joint fixated in a diminished sphere of its normal range of motion in conjunction with the mild pressure increases, it becomes apparent that nerve function can be significantly altered.
The physiologically relevant portion of the manipulation may relate to its ability to increase as well as decrease the discharge of muscle proprioceptors. In addition, the preload, even in the absence of the impulse, can change the discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles. Loading of the vertebral column during a sham manipulation may affect the discharge of paraspinal proprioceptors. These findings indicate that altered muscle function may be a potential short-term therapeutic effect of MFMA SMT, and they form a basis for a randomized, controlled clinical trial to further investigate acute and long-term changes in low back function.
Differences in the amplitude and discharge frequency were noted in response to varying segmental contact points and force vectors, and similarities were noted for internally and externally applied spinal manipulative thrusts. Amplitudes of mixed-nerve root action potentials ranged from to mV for internal thrusts and to mV for external thrusts.
There is now sufficient scientific research to consider these theories reasonable working models to explain the effects of the adjustment but insufficient to consider them valid. The Reflex Effects of Subluxation: The autonomic nervous system has often been invoked in constructing mechanisms to account for the effects of spinal dysfunction; recent investigations justify the attention that has been focused on this component of the nervous system.
Recent neuroscience research supports a neurophysiologie rationale for the concept that aberrant stimulation of spinal or paraspinal structures may lead to segmentally organized reflex responses of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may alter visceral function. Stenosis can be related to osteophytosis of the vertebral body, uncoverte-intervertebral disc protrusion, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy or buckling.
Of course, autopsy findings cannot be equated with painful syndromes in patients. Physiological experiments involving electrical and natural stimulation of the head and neck regions have identified a role for some of these receptors in neck-evoked reflexes. It is clear that in addition to signaling nociception, the somatosensory system of the neck may influence the motor control of the neck, eyes, limbs, respiratory muscles and possibly the activity of some preganglionic sympathetic nerves.
Save for a few papers, only vague and physiologically inconsistent descriptions have been offered. The purpose of this article is to propose a precise and physiologically sound mechanism by which symptoms may be generated by joint complex dysfunction.
You may also enjoy this response from another chiropractic researcher. The afferent convergence mechanisms, which can create signs and symptoms that are virtually indistinguishable with respect to their somatic vs. Furthermore, it is not unreasonable that this somatic visceral-disease mimicry could very well account for the "cures" of presumed organ disease that have been observed over the years in response to various somatic therapies e.
We hypothesize that chronic pain, in this select group of patients, is a consequence of tramua that occurs to the C1 dorsal ramus during whiplash. We started out looking for hypertonic muscles in a population of patients who were suffering from chronic head and neck pain. So I brought together a physician and an anatomy professor to see if they could help me out. Their comments were classic. The anatomy professor said, "The reason you can't find those muscles is because they are not there.
When we looked at images from a control subject it was very easy to locate these muscles. At that point, the focus of our research switched from looking for hypertonic muscles to comparing muscle density between the control group and the chronic pain group. There was no real interlaminar space between these two structures and they appeared to function as a single entity.
The influence of the RCPMI muscle on the dura mater was artificially produced in the hemisected specimen. Artificially functioning the muscle produced obvious movement of the spinal dura between the occiput and the atlas, and resultant fluid movement was observed to the level of the pons and cerebellum. Also, clinical evidence suggests that the muscle dural bridge may play an important role the pathogenesis of the cervicogenic headaches.
The Neurophysiological Evaluation of the Subluxation Complex: The mean latencies decreased after chiropractic adjustment in each of the nerves tested. This would seem to indicate that the upper cervical subluxation does cause neurological compromise in nerves forming both the brachial and lumbo-sacral plexuses. The removal of the subluxation by chiropractic adjustment results in improved conduction of the neural impulses as demonstrated on the post-adjustment tests.
The improvements that were observed are similar to the changes seen when neurological compromise is relieved by surgical procedures to decompress or stabilize the spine. So, when we think about subluxation, the subluxation complex, or joint dysfunction, we need to think about receptors and afferent fibers.
Vert Mooney and James Robertson set out to confirm the earlier research on referred pain and discussed their findings in a well-known paper, "The Facet Syndrome. The subjects in this study included five normal individuals and 15 patients with low back pain.
To make a semi-long story short, Mooney and Robertson discovered that, indeed, injecting hypertonic saline into facet joints resulted in local and referred pain. They also discovered that, "slightly increasing the volume of injection would consistently increase the amount of pain radiation.
Nociception, Mechanoreception and Proprioception: Potential outcomes of nociceptive input to the cord include pain, autonomic symptoms, vasoconstriction and muscle spasm. Nociceptive input to the cord appears to be the driving force behind the pathogenesis of subluxation see Figure A. We must remember that nociception and pain are two completely different animals. However, a devastating consequence of both pain and nociceptive stimulation of the hypothalamus, is the release of cortisol by the adrenal glands.
Over time, elevated levels of cortisol will promote glucose intolerance, inhibit collagen formation, increase protein breakdown, inhibit secretory IgA output, and inhibit white blood cell function. Clearly, the clinical importance of pain and nociception should not be minimized. There are two major problems with this explanation: It is inaccurate because subluxations rarely, if ever, pinch or choke nerves.
Secondly, by repeating this erroneous explanation again and again, DCs eventually come to believe it. Repetitive exposure to information embeds in the mind. The Effects of Chiropractic Adjusting. Biomechanics has its origins from Galileo's studies of mechanics in general and his creation of the term mechanics as a subtitle of his book "Two New Sciences" to refer to force, displacement, and strength of materials.
To rigorously understand SM and its effects requires an understanding of the principles of biomechanics. Manipulation Forces Since the publication of the first white paper in , there have been several important studies that have further clarified the loads that are applied during SM, and especially during high-velocity, low-amplitude HVLA SM. Triano and Shultz [ ] measured the total force that was transmitted through the body during a side-lying lumbar or lumbosacral HVLA SM.
The transmitted forces were similar to the applied forces for their temporal history, but the transmitted forces and moments were shown to vary substantially based on patient positioning. Herzog et al [ ] measured the force distribution during thoracic HVLA SM and concluded that there was an important distinction between the total and effective applied forces, with the latter being much smaller than the total applied force. They found that the total peak force was being applied over a mean contact area of Clearly, the effective applied force during HVLA SM in general will vary based on the contact area of the manipulator's hand and the aspect of the vertebra, but in general, the effective force will be less, and sometimes substantially so, than the applied force.
The 3-dimensional force applied during HVLA SM of the cervical, thoracic, and sacroiliac regions has now been measured. The role of sex in developing force magnitude has been investigated. The one exception was that, in the lower thoracic spine, men applied significantly greater preload than did women. Another type of SM is mobilization or low-velocity low-amplitude SM, which is commonly used by physical therapists as well as other health professionals, including chiropractors.
Using forces ranging from 30 N lowest setting to N maximum setting on the adjusting instrument, the vertebra where the force was applied had peak displacements of approximately 0.
The mobility of lumbar vertebrae in healthy volunteers during mobilization has been assessed using dynamic MRI. Kulig et al, [ ] also using dynamic MRI, found that applying a PA mobilization induced intersegmental motion in all lumbar vertebrae, caudal and cranial, to the site of applied force.
This is consistent with the findings of Ianuzzi and Khalsa [ ] who also found that simulated HVLA SM at a single vertebra induced motion in all other lumbar vertebrae. Thus, it is not possible to move only a single vertebrae with SM high or low velocity because the spine is a linked and coupled structure. This was consistent with the findings of Beffa and Mathews, [ ] who found no significant relationship between the location of the cavitation and HVLA SM of the L5 or sacroiliac joint in asymptomatic volunteers.
Measures of Pathologic States An intriguing question has begun to be answered relating to whether changes in intersegmental stiffness can be discerned using clinically available tools. As such, there has been a continued investigation into factors that change what is felt during palpation.
Latimer et al [ ] found that therapists used different forces to discern spine stiffness and, hence, had different internal perceptual scales. By training therapists to use a calibrated stiffness instrument, discrimination of PA stiffness in the spine can be done with relatively high interexaminer reliability.
Stiffness of the spine is influenced by many factors. In contrast, repositioning the head to the neutral position, which is related to proprioception, is done with relatively high fidelity over the same period.
Using a case study approach, Lehman and McGill [ ] observed that a single HVLA SM session in the lumbar spine caused notable changes in biomechanical factors associated with a complex task ie, a golf swing in an experienced golfer who had chronic low back pain. In addition to changes in vertebral kinematics, they observed decreased electromyographic EMG responses of the associated lumbar muscles.
The largest changes were associated with patients with the greatest reported pain. In a review of the available literature. Another commonly performed clinical test is measuring leg lengths, especially in the prone position. Nguyen et al [ ] found that there was reasonable concordance? Cooperstein et al [ ] found that it was possible to detect a leg length difference of 1. Mathematical and Computational Models One of the signs of maturity of any field is the ability to produce predictive models.
In spine biomechanics, most models are computationally based and either use finite element approaches [ ] or optimization with minimization of an objective function. Analytical approaches have also been performed, which include a linear elastic model of a lumbar motion segment. Using a lumped parameter approach, Keller and Colloca [ ] created an analytical model that predicted the frequency dependent response of the human lumbar spine to PA forces applied to the spinous processes, as is done during low velocity and low amplitude ie, mobilization , HVLA, and VHVLA ie, Activator.
An alternative approach was adopted by Dulhunty [ ] who modeled force transmission in the cervical spine to predict whether parallel forces or concurrent forces are the optimization function. Patwardhan et al [ ] found that by modeling muscle activation so that their loads followed the tangent of the lumbar lordosis, their model would approximate the in vivo condition.
The increased tissue strain can result in small tears and associated biologic inflammatory response. Evans et al [ ] have proposed an optimization model where the spine system is biased toward minimizing the mechanical energy associated with loading the spine.
Their model is described for the case of linear elasticity, although they claim it is also apropos of nonlinear elasticity. As with any theory or model , the value of these new theories is really found in their predictive ability and how well their predictions are validated by experimental data.
So far, neither of these theories has been tested to any degree. Instrumented Manipulation Passive devices have been used for many decades to treat patients with back disorders. Recently, a simple distraction device, Rola Stretcher Unique Relief, Inc, Davenport, Iowa , designed to be used at home without supervision, was tested to determine whether it showed any lengthening of the spine subsequent to its use. Devocht et al [ ] tested 12 asymptomatic adults and found a significant increase in sitting height after 10 minutes of lying supine on the device.
They concluded that it at least temporarily lengthened the spine, presumably by increasing the intervertebral disk height. The device also incorporates a sensor to measure the compliance of the material that it loads, and hence, the compliance of the paraspinal region can be assessed as well as loaded with the same device.
A case study has reported that the instrument was used to treat the spines of infants having colic. Recommendations and Action Steps Determine quantify the biomechanical basis of the subluxation. Determine the parameters that dictate whether a given vertebra should be manipulated. Determine the parameters that will guide the optimal approach to administering the manipulation.
Determine the effects of manipulation on tissues of the spine. Which ligaments including facet joint capsule sustain the largest strains due to SM The influence of the vector direction of a given type of SM on ligament strains Measure the effects of SM on change in tissue characteristics eg, ligament modulus of elasticity and cellular response to SM.
Quantify the biomechanical safety of SM in fracture, disk lesions, ligament strains, muscle, and tendon strains. Develop comprehensive models of the spine that predict how it responds to physiologic and SM loads. Determine the biomechanical parameters of SM that dominate the neurophysiologic beneficial effects of SM.
Org article collection Review a variety of articles about chiropractic adjusting aka spinal manipulation. Org article collection These studies suggest that spinal adjusting or manipulation if you prefer and chiropractic management is both highly effective and cost-effective in comparison to standard medical management for neck and low back pain and for headaches.
Org article collection These studies reveal that chiropractic care is much more popular with patients than standard medical management for neck and low back pain, or for headaches. Changes in chemokine production levels, which might be related to SMT, differ in the acute and chronic LBP patient cohorts. However, this may not be the case in other populations and planes of motion.
Indeed, such hypomobility may be of importance only in a subgroup of neck patients. Objective evidence of an increase in dynamic spinal stiffness, as well as reductions in vertebral displacements occurring in response to SM, were observed in the spondylolysis and disc degeneration groups compared with their age-matched and exposure level controls.
Histologic evidence of pathology consistent with an alteration of spinal stiffness accompanied by alterations in the neuromuscular system provides novel insights into quantifying manipulable spinal lesions as well as a means to biomechanically assess SMT outcomes.
This suggests that, in NP patients, CC chemokines may be involved in regulation of local inflammatory response through recruitment of immune cells to the inflamed tissue and exert pronociceptive effects.
Self-reported Nonmusculoskeletal Responses to Chiropractic Intervention: These improvements were maintained at the 1-year follow-up assessment. Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders: Current anecdotal evidence suggests that correction of upper cervical vertebral subluxation complex might be most beneficial.
It is suggested that chiropractic care be further investigated regarding its role in the overall health care management of pediatric epileptic patients. On days 8 through 11, crying was reduced by 1 hour for the dimethicone group, whereas crying in the manipulation group was reduced by 2.
From trial day 5 onward the manipulation group did significantly better that the dimethicone group. The authors then conclude: Spinal manipulation is effective in relieving infantile colic. You will also enjoy FCER's review of this article.
The Evolution of the Subluxation Theory. The gap between controlled research documentation and frequent clinical observation still exists, but it has greatly narrowed in recent years. The greatest concern today is not is it effective but why is it effective and why is it effective in some cases but not in others that appear almost identical? Added to these can be the questions: Specific Potentialities of the Subluxation Complex Chapter 7 from: Basic Spinal Subluxation Considerations Chapter 19 from: This section discusses the basic biomechanics and effects of vertebral subluxations as related to the management of sports-related and recreational injuries.
Identifying the chiropractic profession with a focus on vertebral subluxation would give the profession uniqueness not duplicated by other health care professions and therefore might legitimatize the existence of chiropractic as a health care profession. An identity having a focus on vertebral subluxation would also be consistent with the original intent of the founding of the chiropractic profession. In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance.
However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. The Basis for Spinal Manipulation: Consequently, SM practitioners routinely assess intervertebral motion, and treat patients on the basis of those assessments. In chiropractic practice, the vertebral subluxation has been the historical raison d'etre for SM.
Vertebral subluxation is a biomechanical spine derangement thought to produce clinically significant effects by disturbing neurological function. This paper reviews the putative mechanical features of the subluxation and three theories that form the foundation for much of chiropractic practice.
It concludes with discussion of subluxation as an indicator for SM therapy, particularly from the perspective that subluxation may be one contributory cause of ill-health within a "web of causation". Two major themes emerge from this review: Chiropractic subluxation theory is one of the few health-related theories whereby these mechanical and neurologic theories have been unified into a comprehensive theory of disorder of spinal function.
For this disorder, doctors of chiropractic have used the term subluxation. The Great Subluxation Debate: Currently, this phenomenon can be compared with a country with a 2-party system that has a large silent majority sitting between the 2 factions. It is argued that the position held by those in the middle the centrists may be the most rational view when considering all of the available evidence. It is also suggested that the subluxation construct is similar to the Santa Claus construct in that both have a factual basis as well as social utility.
Ultimately, the centrists must become proactive if they want to protect the profession and further advance the evidence in regard to the subluxation. They must not only engage in the debate, but fund the research that will investigate various aspects of the subluxation and then help disseminate this evidence to fellow doctors of chiropractic, other practitioners, health care policy makers, and society at large.
Historically, the subluxation has been at the heart of the identity and purpose of the chiropractic profession. Contemporary models provide new insights into this elusive and sometimes mysterious problem which we attempt to find by various clinical means and correct by the application of high-velocity, low-amplitude thrusts.
Let's review past models, but focus primarily on the latest evidence concerning the subluxation published in the recent scientific literature in order to improve our understanding, insight, and application of clinical interventions to improve patient outcomes with chiropractic care.
Our survey findings lend support to the notion that the typical doctor of chiropractic is not a simplistic ideologue in their clinical approach. Rather, our findings support and we respect the suggestion that contemporary practicing chiropractors are capable of reconciling complex notions of health, well-being, and dysfunction, by tailoring specific care for specific disorders in specific patients.
Chiropractic Theory in Research: In actuality, the "subluxation model" that postulates a relationship between body structure, physiological function and health is an inherently viable one. As more becomes known, chiropractic models should rightly be refined to better explain clinical observations. Well-developed theories help pose research questions and study designs that do a better job at finding out information that can improve our practices and benefit the patients we are here to serve.
Acceptable as hypothesis, the widespread assertion of the clinical meaningfulness of this notion brings ridicule from the scientific and health care communities and confusion within the chiropractic profession. We believe that an evidence-orientation among chiropractors requires that we distinguish between subluxation dogma vs. We lament efforts to generate unity within the profession through consensus statements concerning subluxation dogma, and believe that cultural authority will continue to elude us so long as we assert dogma as though it were validated clinical theory.
This paper suggests that doctors of chiropractic should develop an evidence base that focuses on the clinical entities that are treated in clinical practice. Such effort might include documenting common locally symptomatic subluxations in each joint region and subluxations that cause more distant neurophysiological effects.
Trying to apply examination procedures, such as medical orthopedic tests, which do not indicate the presence or correction of vertebral subluxations, has frustrated many doctors. The concept of nerve interference is often challenging to patients. Their confusion is compounded when the chiropractor claims to subluxation-based, but bases care on the presence or absence of symptoms. Separated by a Common Language: Its Time to Develop Chiropractic Nomenclature. The idea was to get the future chiropractors to think more complexly about a complex problem.
Give Me a Break! A responsible journalist who didn't hear the whole story would have checked not only his facts, but his context as well. Models of Vertebral Subluxation: Models reviewed include the subluxation complex model, subluxation degeneration, nerve compression, dysafferentation, the neurodystrophic model and segmental facilitation. Clinical models, including the segmental, postural, and tonal approaches are discussed.
There is a growing body of evidence, from both within and outside the discipline, that supports many of chiropractic's basic concepts. Evidence regarding the contribution of spinal joint derangement to a number of significant health problems becomes more compelling as more is learned.
The role of manual procedures, especially as performed by chiropractors, becomes more prominent each year. A new environment without the overt ostracism of political medicine and a burgeoning research enterprise within chiropractic academia and practice are helping to poise the profession for greater contributions to the health care of society as chiropractic enters its next century. Critics of the consensus method have suggested that developing formalized standards of practice leads to the practice of "cookbook medicine.
Thanks to the ICA! The Vertebral Subluxation Complex: The Vertebral Subluxation Complex Part 2: Today, more than ever before, basic scientific and medical research supports this fundamental concept of chiropractic. In chiropractic clinical practice, the prominence of the nervous system is unquestionable.
The Vertebral Subluxation Complex Part 1: Palmer 1 in It is one of the most controversial concepts in health care today, and finds its supporters and critics both within and outside the chiropractic profession.
The original concept of the subluxation was that of a slightly misaligned vertebra, not sufficient to be qualified as a true luxation or dislocation but substantial enough to impinge on the segmental nerves associated with it 1. It must be stressed that from the contemporary, scientific chiropractic point of view, the subluxation is a dynamic process, involving several tissue levels and integrative components.
Outdated models which attempt to describe a scientific basis for chiropractic theory are inadequate and indeed harmful to the progress and acceptance of chiropractic. Vertebral Subluxation Research Conferences. Review the platform presentations, and enjoy the evolution of chiropractic research. For the Nay Sayers. Chiropractic Identity in the United States: Areas of disagreement, including advanced practice, vertebral subluxation, and the philosophy of chiropractic, continue to separate those in the profession.
Doctors of chiropractic should accept that differences within the profession will remain for the foreseeable future and that the profession should allow each group to live peacefully and supportively alongside each other. There's more on this topic at our Chiropractic Identity Page. Longitudinal trends in allowed claims for spinal manipulation varied by procedure: A collection of material, published up until approximately and consisting of textbooks, monographs and lecture notes from Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, was analyzed to identify commonly occurring words and phrases.
The results were compared to a corpus of recent articles from the Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. This permitted the identification of words which were over-represented in the historical literature and therefore likely have become somewhat archaic or represent themes which are of less import in the modern chiropractic literature.
Words which were over-represented in the historical literature often referred to anatomical, pathological and biomechanical concepts. Conversely, words which were comparatively over-represented in the modern chiropractic literature often referred to concepts of professionalism, the clinical interaction and evidence-based care. A detailed analysis is presented of trends in the use of the conceptually important terms subluxation and adjustment.
Your sleep and appetite cycles are controlled by the LS, especially the hypothalamus. Healthy appetite and sleep are essential for optimal health. However, disruptions in the LS can negatively affect sleep and appetite, which may mean an inclination toward too much or too little of either. LS structures are also intimately involved with bonding and social connectedness.
We are social animals; when we are bonded to people in a positive way, we feel better about ourselves and our lives.
Another important function of the LS is to process sense of smell, says Dr. One study comparing exercise with antidepressants found that after 12 weeks, both therapies were equally effective.
At 10 months, exercise was actually more effective — and it has no side effects. Supplements containing Omega-3 fatty acids and fish oils — especially those containing a higher EPA content, and S-adenosylmethionine — have both been shown to support a healthier, happier mood.
What is important to you? What and who do you care deeply about? Answering these questions can help your mood; and they can also help you live a longer, fuller life. But only the rich and wealthy can afford your treatment Mr. Amen and all those Supplements costs lots of money in the long run. And it would be a good idea to lower the cost of SPECT imaging for people whom have not have the financial resources and other aspect of your therapy , that would be really kind of you.
So how long w this take for the general public to be able to receive such great care as this. Dr Amen has written several books on the subject complete with questions. In at least one of the books he writes that he does this so that people who cannot afford to get a SPECT scan can still get help. The book is segmented into chapters addressing the issues with that area of the brain and what to do and not do in support of it.
Another book, Change your brain, change your life, with chapters for each area of the brain. What works for one person with ADD may not work for another—or could even make the symptoms worse! ADD is a neurobiological disorder with serious psychological and social consequences. Amen Clinics is here to help you understand your brain and provide treatment options that address more than just symptoms. Call us today at or visit us online to schedule a visit. What else needs to be taken along with a stimulant to prevent this?
I have recently been diagnosed with adult ADD. A few are stimulants, but there are many that are not. I feel much more in control of my day. I am more organized, more energized, and am able to follow through and finish tasks that I would have had a very hard time doing before my diagnosis. Work with a doctor who will allow you to determine your appropriate dosage and really listens to you. For the last year I have been using essential oils and grapefruit and bergamot are my favorites—They make me feel almost ecstatic.
It makes me wonder if someone randomly chose these four as examples or if there is something about them that is signifant! YEeah lost me once you got to Essential oils. Oh and those oils are working great for you, they usually work best on middle aged Hippie type women but hey do you. Your email address will not be published. Reported rates of marijuana use have more than doubled in the past decade.
Medical marijuana is now legal in nearly…. Kimberlyn, a year-old married mother living in Arizona is not your average patient. She is highly detailed, analytical, logical, and….
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