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How one mother changed an organ transplant policy to save her daughter's life Five years ago, Sarah Murnaghan's case gained national attention. Jurassic Survival Free Golds. In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Armstrong and six opposed.

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Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death.

Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea. Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy.

Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis. Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory.

Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names. Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work". The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.

The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other.

The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this. The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains.

In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf. Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece 's settled, sheep-herding world.

His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived. Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs.

Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behavior, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal. Although portrayed as loyal, honest and moral, Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story.

The tale of Little Red Riding Hood , first written in by Charles Perrault , is largely considered to have had more influence than any other source of literature in forging the wolf's negative reputation in the western world. The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech.

Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and borzois. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies. The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.

The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.

Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back. It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves.

Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.

A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves. Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source. Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans. Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves.

Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs. In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members.

The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations. Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves.

The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans. The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off. Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated.

Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase, [24] though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine. The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women.

Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia. Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals, [24] with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs.

Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day. The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. In the half-century up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia. Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs.

This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell. Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals.

Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies. For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation.

For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP [1]. Linnaeus , [3]. Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks.

Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves. Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus. This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves.

This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf. He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves.

Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A.

Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp. Foxes, Wolverhampton Wanderers F. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves". The Fear of Wolves: Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA. A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns". Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde.

Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walker's Mammals of the World. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLoS Genetics, 10 7.

Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves. PLOS One, 10 9. Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology.

University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment. Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L.

S; Andriashek, D Mashkour "Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Retrieved February 20, It's a Lot Like Cats and Dogs". Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2. Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists. Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen.

Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White.

Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp. Cultural Perspectives , Psychology Press, pp. Archived from the original PDF on July 27, Smith, Yan Xie, Robert S.

A Guide to the Mammals of China. Retrieved February 9, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 30, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved January 25, Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk.

Conservation Biology,16 3 , The Canadian Historical Review. Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry. University of Oklahoma Press. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. The complex interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs Canis familiaris in a conservation context". Wolf and dog competition in Italy. Wolf attacks on dogs in Scandinavia — Will wolves in Scandinavia go extinct if dog owners are allowed to kill a wolf attacking a dog? Examensarbete , Institutionen för ekologi, Grimsö forskningsstation.

What's New for Conserving Carnivores". What is wrong with Romanian livestock guarding dogs? Hunting the grisly and other sketches; an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle , New York, London, G. Wolf and coyote trapping; an up-to-date wolf hunter's guide, giving the most successful methods of experienced "wolfers" for hunting and trapping these animals, also gives their habits in detail , Columbus, Ohio, A.

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Kobak received several NIMH grants to develop and study rater training methodology for depression, schizophrenia, and autism. Negash serves as the scientific lead bridging research and operations to ensure MedAvante-ProPhase clinical trial services are implemented successfully from a scientific and service delivery perspective. Her work has focused on investigating factors associated with successful cognitive aging, including lifestyle factors such as cognitive activity, and on developing interventions that enhance cognitive fitness in older adults.

She also studies successful cognitive aging in minority populations, particularly African-Americans. Her other area of work focuses on examining implicit and explicit learning and memory systems in healthy aging and in mild cognitive impairment.

Kane has been the principal investigator for research projects focusing on schizophrenia, psychobiolgy and treatment, recovery, and improving quality and cost of care. He is the author of over peer-reviewed papers and serves on the editorial boards of numerous journals. Sue Vallow is a patient-reported outcomes PRO scientist with more than 20 years of experience developing and implementing patient-focused outcomes strategies and capabilities in numerous therapeutic areas with a specialty in CNS trials.

She is a co-author of more than 20 peer-reviewed papers and more than 70 research posters and presentations. Sofija Jovic is focused on the strategic combination of MedAvante-ProPhase as the thought leader in using measurement science and data quality to transform clinical trials. Jovic guided the transformation from a four-person start-up to a global industry leader in collaboration with ProPhase founder Dr.

Jovic started her career as a clinical psychologist: Jovic has published in peer-reviewed journals and presented scientific papers at professional and industry conferences. His academic research focuses on the etiology, phenomenology, and treatment of serious and persistent mental disorders. He has co-authored over 40 peer-reviewed publications and has contributed to multiple book chapters and review articles on schizophrenia and mental health research.

Lord-Bessen oversees MedAvante-ProPhase Clinical Data Analytics services including data management, statistics, and psychometric activities, including consultation on the development and validation of new Clinician-Reported and Patient-Reported Outcomes as well as the conversion of existing assessments to electronic format.

Lord-Bessen has over twenty years of experience in statistics and measurement. Twelve board members from leading universities and research institutions provide counsel and guidance to MedAvante-ProPhase on initiatives relating to mood, anxiety, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders.

Co-chaired by John M. Richard Feinberg Chair in Schizophrenia Research. Eleven top leaders from major Japanese universities and research institutions provide their expertise to enhance the ability to collect high-quality research data with less error and greater signal detection.

At MedAvante-ProPhase, we look for colleagues who combine talent with a powerful desire to change healthcare for the better and ensure that effective therapies make it to the patients who need them. This is the mission uniting the clinicians, scientists, technologists, and operations experts whose mix of energy, inventiveness, and skill drives not only MedAvante-ProPhase but the entire WIRB-Copernicus Group family of companies in a relentless quest to improve clinical trials.

What do you do at MedAvante-ProPhase? As a member of the Business Development team, I am responsible for overseeing the creation of our responses to requests for information and proposals from drug development sponsors planning clinical trials. I also serve as a subject matter expert on clinical and technical aspects of our service solutions. Why did you decide to work at MedAvante-ProPhase? What do you like best about your job?

MedAvante-ProPhase lacks the layers of hierarchy that can kill good ideas or contributions from different departments, and our entire team is determined to stay on the forefront of signal detection and clinical trial technology. What are your colleagues like? Hard working, open and approachable. They like to be challenged, and they constantly push the limits of their comfort zone to ensure that quality of service is the first thing any customer remembers.

What impact has working at MedAvante-ProPhase had on you? My job is to perform live clinical psychiatric interviews by phone and video conferencing with study subjects participating in clinical trials. I also review documents and recordings of neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments conducted by other clinicians to provide feedback on scoring and administration.

I found in MedAvante-ProPhase a great place to use my behavioral health experience in a clinical trials setting, as well as a perfect fit for my years of face-to-face counseling, neuropsychological assessments, and phone work at an employee assistance program provider. I like the excellent training, as well as the opportunity to work with a dedicated group of professionals. I have worked a number of places in my career before MedAvante-ProPhase but I never met a more caring and dedicated group of employees as I have here.

While I work in the office, I feel just as connected to my peers who work remotely. The learning at MedAvante-ProPhase for me started on day one, and has never stopped. As the company grows, so does my ability to gain further skills as a clinician and professional in different research areas. I administer the adjudication process for large global studies by tracking cases, contacting sites for needed information, and assembling and storing the required documentation. I come from the medical field, having graduated as a Medical Doctor in Dominican Republic.

I really love the flexibility that makes my work very convenient for me and my family. I also like the way our multicultural team all treats each other with respect and I enjoy working with colleagues from around the world.

In our department we are very diverse in culture, beliefs and opinions, but there is something common in all of us and that is the respect and the compassion we all have. My colleagues really care about each other and are willing to help and support.

Working here has helped me take personal responsibility for learning and development, and increased my understanding that there is a lot more to do in the pharma world. I interact with people from all over the world in my job, exchanging information, optimizing various processes, and, most importantly, providing high quality technical support and customer service to our clinical trial sites.

The nature of our work is such that I am constantly learning new things, and I must steadily exercise and develop my skills.

When I first came across the MedAvante-ProPhase job opening, I knew the skills I had acquired during my career up to that point would make me a strong candidate. On the other hand, medical research was a completely new field for me. Therefore, the job was both a good fit and a big challenge for me. I had to apply. Every day is interesting and challenging, it might be a bit hard, but it is never boring.

I love being trusted to oversee and carry out projects with my co-workers. It makes me feel part of a team and boosts my confidence. My colleagues are hardworking, bright and talented people. We work as a team. Each one of us tries our best to produce a collective result that is optimal for our company and for our clients. My co-workers have my back, as I have theirs. Therefore, a strong bond has developed between us.