How the Rabbit Digestive System Works

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What Is Tofu? 8 Reasons to Not Eat This ‘Healthy’ Vegan Product
An analysis of two approaches to undergraduate human anatomy laboratory education". Send mail to webmaster lifeplusvitamins. The capacity to reduce particle size is related to the metabolic demands of a species. Well, it depends on whether you are wearing pants. Thus comminuted it is known as "chyme," and passes through the pylorus into the small intestine, in the first loop of which, the "duodenum," it is mixed with the bile and pancreatic juice, these two fluids being the secretions of the liver and the pancreas. The clinical signs associated with acute pain are more difficult to recognize than those associated with chronic pain. Depending on the age of the fetal pig, it is natural to see eruptions of third incisor and canine in the fetal pig.


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Mortality may be high. Campylobacter spp have also been isolated from free-living birds, including migratory birds and waterfowl, crows, gulls, and domestic pigeons; however, disease due to C jejuni jejuni , for example in naturally infected birds, is rare.

Campylobacter GI disease has been reported in exotic pets eg, ferrets, mink, primates, hamsters, guinea pigs, mice, and rats. Although clinical signs vary in these species, they generally include mucoid, watery, bile-streaked diarrhea sometimes with blood , anorexia, vomiting, and fever.

Prolonged infections are possible but uncommon; most infections are self-limiting with mild signs. The following species have been isolated from birds, shellfish, reptiles, marine mammals, and livestock not known to be associated with disease symptoms: C avium , C hyointestinalis lawsonii , C fetus subsp testudinum , C canadensis , C peloridis , C insulaenigrae , C subantarcticus , C volucris , and C ureolyticus previously Bacteroides ureolyticus.

Several of these are implicated in human diseases. Arcobacter spp infecting animals include A cryaerophilus livestock abortion , A butzleri livestock diarrhea, bovine and porcine abortions , A skirrowii sheep diarrhea, livestock abortions , and A thereius porcine abortion.

Disease status is unknown, although these species have been isolated from food animals: A cibarious chicken meat, piggery effluent , A trophiarum fattening pigs , and A suis pork meat. Approximately 11 additional Arcobacter spp found in shellfish, sewage, seawater, sediments, and salt marsh plants are not known to cause diseases in animals or people.

C jejuni can stably colonize the small and large intestines, although most animals show cecal and colonic lesions with typhlocolitis. In swine and mice, gross lesions observed in C jejuni enteritis include enlarged and fluid-filled ceca and proximal colons with thickened walls. Lymph nodes ileocecocolic and mesenteric draining infected sites become significantly enlarged. Infection with particular strains of C jejuni produces bloody exudates with mucus. Histopathologic features include a marked inflammation of the lamina propria, dominated by neutrophilic polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells that sometimes extend into submucosa.

Immune cells such as plasma cells, macrophages, and mononuclear cells have been found in smaller numbers in the lamina propria. Damage to, sloughing of, and ulceration of the epithelial surface and edema have also been seen in most infected species. In pigs and mice, damage to the epithelial surface is associated with the presence of C jejuni at the basolateral surface of the epithelium, in paracellular junctions of the epithelium, and in erosive and ulcerative lesions of the epithelium; there is often a mucopurulent neutrophilic exudate with sloughed and lysed epithelial cells and erosive or ulcerative lesions where C jejuni is associated with the basolateral aspect of sloughing villous tip cells in the colon.

Crypt abscesses and damage to the crypt epithelium are also common findings. Campylobacter spp can be found in both healthy and diarrheic animals; thus, clinical signs and postmortem findings depend on the species and the host animal and its age. Diagnosis of enteric campylobacteriosis relies on isolation of the causative agent using selective media under microaerophilic conditions. Fresh fecal samples should be collected and transported to the laboratory preferably on the same day and within at least 2 days for processing.

Campylobacters are very sensitive to environmental conditions, including dehydration, atmospheric oxygen, sunlight, and increased temperature. Organisms are thin 0. They exhibit a typical spiraling motility. In unfavorable growth conditions, spiral rods undergo a degenerate conversion to coccoid forms. Campylobacters can be quickly outgrown by contaminating microbes during prolonged transport to the laboratory, and isolation of pure colonies for downstream testing can be difficult. Enrichment is required for most clinical sampling unless material can be transported to the laboratory immediately.

When samples are collected in swabs, the use of commercially available transport tubes containing medium, such as Amies, is recommended. The medium can be plain agar or charcoal-based. Several transport media have been described for transport of fecal specimens, including Cary-Blair, modified Cary-Blair, modified Stuart medium, Campy thioglycolate medium, alkaline peptone water, and semisolid motility test medium.

Other media are recommended for the isolation of campylobacters associated with reproductive losses. Campylobacter spp do not ferment carbohydrates, and other biochemical characteristics are thus used to identify different species. C jejuni is differentiated on its ability to hydrolyze hippurate, and C upsaliensis has negative or weak catalase production and is differentiated from other campylobacters because of its sensitivity to nalidixic acid.

C helveticus is also catalase negative but can be difficult to differentiate biochemically from C upsaliensis relying on distinctive colony morphologies.

Differentiation of subspecies can be necessary for identification of significant pathogens. C jejuni subsp jejuni is the main cause of enteritis, whereas C jejuni subsp doylei has been isolated only from enteritis cases of children and not animals. They can be differentiated by the ability of C jejuni doylei to reduce nitrate. Similarly, C hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis can cause bovine and porcine enteritis; however, C hyointestinalis subsp lawsonii has been isolated from the porcine stomach, but it is not known to cause disease.

The subspecies can be differentiated by testing the intolerance of C hyointestinalis lawsonii to 1. Arcobacter spp previously known as aerotolerant campylobacters can also be associated with human and animal diarrhea and with animal abortions.

Arcobacters are usually not thermophilic but can be confused with the nonthermophilic Campylobacter spp if aerotolerance is confirmed using standardized suspensions of organisms. Although most cases of human enteritis are attributed to C jejuni jejuni , C coli , C lari , and C upsaliensis , it has been suggested that the importance of other species also associated with GI illness may be significantly underdiagnosed as a consequence of inappropriate isolation and identification methods.

PCR-based methods effectively identify infection, especially if cultivation is difficult or if the sample has been somewhat mishandled. However, a positive test is not sufficient evidence to determine causation and must be considered in conjunction with clinical signs.

Clindamycin , gentamicin , tetracyclines, erythromycin , cephalosporins eg, cephalothin , and fluoroquinolones eg, nalidixic acid are effective against C jejuni , C helveticus , and C upsaliensis.

C fetus , C hyointestinalis , C mucosalis , and C sputorum are usually resistant to the fluoroquinolones yet sensitive to cephalosporins. C coli are sensitive to fluoroquinolones but resistant to cephalosporins.

Susceptibilities to penicillins and trimethoprim are variable across Campylobacter spp. Resistance to the fluoroquinolones, tetracycline , kanamycin , and some other antibiotics has been documented among the Campylobacter spp, mediated by both chromosomal and plasmid mechanisms. Once the nutrient concentrations for the diet have been established, the types and amounts of foodstuffs, methods of presentation, and feeding frequencies should be selected based on the physical and behavioral attributes of the species.

All food should be of good quality. Food and water dishes should be thoroughly cleaned before adding food or water. Clean, fresh water should always be available to nonmarine species. Cafeteria-style feeding is strongly discouraged, because captive animals rarely select a balanced diet if given a wide selection of foods. Usually, a nutritionally complete commercial product or in-house mixture that cannot be sorted should comprise the bulk of the diet, with components such as meat, fruit, and seeds comprising only a small percentage.

Pelleted diets are especially important with psittacines, to avoid self-selection of calcium-deficient seeds. To improve consumption of pelleted diets, feeding should be done in the morning, with the other food items offered during the day. All diet items to be fed should be weighed, and the actual intake recorded. Muscle and organ meat, fruit, most grains and seeds, and most insects are poor sources of calcium, and excess consumption can result in calcium deficiency.

Dusting with a balanced calcium-phosphorus powder is also a possibility; however, it is doubtful this can add enough calcium to the diet.

Other sources of calcium include oyster shell, cuttle bone, and ground calcium carbonate tablets. Obesity is more common than inadequate nutrient intake. Ungulates, primates, and carnivores can rapidly become overweight when excess amounts of a high-quality diet are offered, particularly when activity is limited.

In some birds eg, ratites, waterfowl , rapid growth rates increase the incidence of leg and wing problems. Both adult and growing animals should be routinely weighed to monitor changes. If weighing four times a year is not possible, a body score index should be performed. If a dietary change is contemplated because of suspected nutrient imbalances, deficiencies, or toxicities, the diet currently fed should first be computer-analyzed to assess nutrient concentrations.

Ingredient or nutrient changes can then be made based on correcting a suspected or confirmed health problem. For captive, exotic animals, establishing and maintaining dietary histories can be particularly helpful in health assessment. Activity patterns of individuals are also important eg, atherosclerosis is relatively common in obese birds. The use of nutritional supplements is popular among animal caretakers.

Although many keepers and pet owners use nutritionally complete feeds that require no supplementation, supplements are still often provided.

The nutrient content of the current diet should be established or estimated first to determine whether any supplement is needed or whether a supplement should be discontinued. Unfortunately, diets are rarely evaluated first to determine which nutrients if any are unbalanced. If a nutrient is deficient in a diet, a specific supplement in a specific amount should be recommended.

Excessive supplementation of some nutrients eg, some fat-soluble vitamins, selenium, copper can be just as harmful as not enough because of toxicity and nutrient imbalance. Diets consisting primarily of grain products and cultivated fruits and vegetables may need micronutrient supplementation; however, supplements vary widely in their composition.

Water intake should be assessed routinely but especially in animals with compromised renal function, in lizards or birds prone to gout, and in animals under conditions of high temperature or low humidity in which evaporative losses can be expected.

The salt content of water should be known, because some species are less tolerant than others. Animals fed dry feeds pellets, extrusions, hay, etc require more water than those fed succulent feeds. Potable water should be available ad lib.