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A more profound philosopher spoke to this centuries before Descartes and his coordinate-plane approach: Requires a lot of energy. It often happens after some kind of catastrophe empties a range of ecological niches simultaneously. Evolutionary operations and outcomes have been observed directly, today, as well as indirectly through field studies, DNA research, evidence-dating techniques, the fossil record, etc. It splits along parallel bedding planes. Examples of "Bovine Theriogenology" Course Chapters include "

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Endovascular presence of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common phenomenon in coronary artery disease - Journal of the American College of Cardiology - Doctors and researchers in the United States will never seriously investigate bacteria and viruses as a cause for coronary artery disease.

The constant mantra against cholesterol, saturated fats, and red meat as the causes of coronary artery disease is absolutely overwhelming. Pharmaceutical companies making cholesterol-lowering drugs, carbohydrate food manufacturers, and vegetarians swamp the media with their lies.

Agents from these organizations infiltrate universities, medical societies, and government agencies in order to protect their sponsors. Medical schools fear losing research grants from the drug and food manufacturing companies. True science has been blocked, and heart disease rages as the number one cause of death.

Vegetarians spread lies about beef. An example is the common claim that protein causes gout. Many people are brainwashed in their belief of these lies. Gout is actually caused by carbohydrates in the diet. Heart Disease Can Be Reversed. Maryanne was 63 years of age when she felt a sharp chest pain, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness while working in her yard. She immediately diagnosed herself as having a heart attack. Unlike many others, she sought help immediately.

A close friend drove her to the hospital she preferred. The initial evaluation showed nothing. The routine electrocardiogram was normal. The physician on duty suggested she return home and call immediately if anything changed. She refused to leave and insisted that additional tests be performed. She was certain she had suffered a heart attack. Further tests did show the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. A coronary X-ray angiogram was performed in which a thin, long, flexible tube called a catheter is threaded into an artery in the forearm or groin.

The doctor guides the catheter toward the heart using a special camera. Once the catheter is in position, dye is injected to show blood flow inside the coronary arteries and to identify any areas that are narrow or blocked. She was treated with the standard assortment of drugs and given the standard low-fat, low-cholesterol diet to follow. Maryanne knew this treatment comes with no promises, and the incidence of worsening heart disease is common. Since she was interested in finding alternative treatments for her heart disease, she investigated the low-carbohydrate approach as recommended by Dr.

Michael and Mary Dan Eades. Maryanne began the low-carbohydrate diet immediately. She took the blood-thinning drug and the cholesterol lowering statin drug prescribed but quickly developed unpleasant side effects she attributed to the cholesterol-lowing drug.

Warfarin Coumadin to help prevent blood clots by decreasing clotting proteins, blood thinner, or anti-coagulant.

Clopidogrel Plavix to help prevent blood clots by anti-platelet effects to keep blood flowing smoothly. Maryanne discontinued the statin drug because of horrible leg cramps and began taking the product listed below with red yeast rice an herbal product with cholesterol-lowering properties , but she discontinued it because it raised her blood pressure. Her periodic checkups showed continued success, and her doctor was very pleased. He didn't ask what she was eating, and she didn't tell him she was eating lots of fatty red meat and eggs, those same foods he had told her to avoid.

She told him she had reduced sugar, fruit, whole grains, starch, legumes, and total carbohydrate consumption. He acknowledged that reducing carbohydrates was helpful. However, his agreement was contrary to the standard high-carbohydrate diet he had recommended previously and continues to recommend to his other patients. Maryanne did not exercise after her heart attack. She was involved in an automobile accident a few months before her heart attack and suffered from a leg injury.

Her overall activity was much less than that of the average healthy person. Exercise does not prevent heart disease and does not reverse heart disease as claimed.

Maryanne had a major checkup three years following her heart attack. The results were excellent. Her heart specialist said all of her heart arteries were "perfectly clear. Her doctor was overjoyed. Maryanne is confident her special diet and supplement program will keep the stent in her artery clear. Plugging of stents is a typical occurrence.

CT - Total Cholesterol. Dropped from to Soared from 34 to Her low HDL had been a death sentence. Plunged from to 96 to beat her doctor's goal of less than Dropped from 35 to All of her cholesterol readings moved in the good direction. Her doctor asked her what cholesterol-lowering drug she was taking.

She repeated her answer, "None. She eats eggs and all the fatty red meat she wants. She avoids all of the high-carbohydrate foods that were recommended by her doctor. Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Maryanne gave up the two food categories most often recommended as wonderfully healthy - fruit and whole grains. Giving up the fruit was most difficult. Fruit is highly addictive, but the fructose sugar in fruit is deadly.

It causes insulin resistance and raises the insulin level. Whole grains are bad because they keep insulin at a level higher than desirable. Insulin has been proven to cause plugged heart arteries. Together, fruit and whole grains are a deadly combination that is only slightly less dangerous than the famous killing duo, sugar, and hydrogenated vegetable oils.

Maryanne told friends and relatives of the wonderful reversal of her heart disease. They responded exactly like her doctor - total disinterest.

People rarely bother with a follow-up question. One would think that others with partially plugged heart arteries would be most interested to know how she cleared all of the plaque from her heart, but that is not the case.

They have been told so many lies about nutrition and health by "professional experts" that the general public has simply tuned out. People have given up and are resigned to suffer without any hope of improvements in their health.

They just don't believe the professional experts or government recommendations anymore. Maryanne also had a breathing test performed by her asthma specialists. He found her lung capacity to be perfectly normal.

He asked which asthma drug she was on, and she responded, "None. This is an update on Maryanne. She had a complete heart checkup in May, , four years after her heart attack. The results show her artery stent remains perfectly clear, and all of her heart arteries are perfectly clear. She has reversed her heart disease by eating the high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet program shown below. This diet is the exact opposite of the low-fat diet her doctor initially recommended and continues to recommend.

Her attitude has greatly improved as well. She is cheerful, optimistic, and planning the future with lots of excitement. Coronary Heart Disease, Exams, and Tests. Computed tomography has potential to offer accurate, safer method for detecting artery disease.

Medication errors continue even in highly computerized hospital. Coronary heart disease in women is under-diagnosed, under-treated, and under-researched. Saturated fats don't cause heart disease and never did. David's low-fat diet has caused his hypoglycemia, heart disease, and degenerative disc disease. This is the true story of an acquaintance who has been living according to the recommendations of the American Medical Association AMA , American Heart Association AHA and the American Diabetic Association ADA , but still got hypoglycemia at age 52, plugged heart arteries at age 59, and degenerative disc disease at age This is the story of a real person.

Australians more obese than Americans, study finds - June 19, David is a doctor employed at the local hospital. His wife, Susie, also works there. They always picked the low-fat selections in the grocery store and ate lots of "healthy" fruit and whole grains. They did recognize the necessity of eating meat, but they always selected the low-fat cuts, removed the visible fat on their plates, and always removed the skin from chicken. David and Susie were "health nuts.

The switch was then made to hiking the mountain where they live and riding bikes on the mountain roads. Exercise was a major priority. They ran the local 10K race every year. When Susie could no longer run because of her knees, David continued to run the race religiously. It was the highlight of their health activity. David nor Susie was ever fat or overweight. They never went on yo-yo diets because it wasn't necessary. They never smoked or drank alcohol which was very much against their religion and health rules.

They didn't eat many simple carbohydrates like sugar and white flour. They presented bodies that appeared to be the optimum in health, but inside they were sick, sick, sick. By age 52 Dr. David was having blood sugar metabolism problems. His blood sugar would surge when he ate his normal high-carbohydrate meals but plunge later giving the typical symptoms of someone who is pre-diabetic.

Being a doctor, David followed the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association ADA by snacking on peanut butter and crackers between meals in order to keep his blood sugar stable. David's biggest disadvantage was being a doctor because he believed the nonsense put forth by the above professional societies.

The low-fat diet is always high in carbohydrates and produces high blood insulin levels. David is suffering because he believed the " big fat lies " about the low-fat diet. David was complacent about learning nutritional facts and didn't question recommendations put forth by his professional societies. He didn't do his own research into the history of heart disease. If he had, he would have discovered that heart disease was so rare in it was not listed in the medical books.

He didn't realize the cookbooks of the era show people eating lots of saturated fat in the form of pork lard, beef suet, butter, eggs, and coconut oil. Eating the skin from chicken and turkey was considered the "best part of the bird. David still doesn't realize the low-fat diet is an attempt by vegetarians to discourage the eating of animals and has nothing to do with healthy nutrition.

He doesn't realize how deadly carbohydrates like fruit, bread, whole grains, cereals, sugar, flour, rice, legumes, potatoes, and soy really are. David and Susie were proud that they considered themselves health and diet extremists. They followed the popular exercise and diet recommendations to the letter. They still think the USDA Food Guide Pyramid is a healthy way of eating because it is fully supported by his professional medical societies.

David is now forced to decide which mechanical method to use to unplug his heart arteries. He doesn't believe diet and exercise can help. What can he eat? He has been on the recommended low-fat diet for many years. His exercise has been unrelenting. His lifestyle was in perfect accordance with all the recommendations. His doctors will no doubt recommend the same diet for the cure when actually it was the cause of his heart disease. David is in big trouble. What does a doctor do now?

His erroneous training had double-crossed him, and he doesn't even know it. David's declining health hasn't stopped there. He developed degenerative disc disease in his back that required the fusing of two vertebrae. He and Susie still eat lots of fresh fruit, dried fruit, and yogurt with fruit as recommended by his profession for healthy bones.

Now she has been diagnosed with cancer and has had a heart pacemaker implanted in her chest. They do not realize their high-carbohydrate diet is slowly killing them. Metabolic syndrome prevalent in heart attack patients. The Framingham study also found that those who ate the most saturated fat, the most calories, and the most cholesterol were the most physically active. They also weighed the least and had the lowest levels of serum cholesterol.

The people who ate the most saturated fat were the most healthy and had the lowest risk of heart disease. These were fixed with stents 4 total , and when I was told in October that the next procedure would be a bypass, I decided to explore other health remedies.

I had already stopped smoking, lost a lot of weight through calorie restriction lbs down to lbs and did multiple vigorous cardio workouts each week after my first June heart attack, but I was still eating low fat and high carb until October when my last blockage occurred by the way, my last two attacks occurred after vigorous exercise.

It was at this time that I discovered your website and tried the diet you recommend. My cardiologist was supportive except for the high fat part, of course , and my blood work was awesome after a month on this diet, and I was allowed to discontinue two cholesterol medications, an anxiety medication and my beta blocker blood pressure medicine.

I also believe the magnesium supplements, a reduction in hard cheese and the potassium chloride salt substitute have corrected my atrial fibrillation. Notice that this gentlemen continued to suffer heart artery blockage even after following his doctor's recommendation of a low-fat diet, stopping smoking, exercise, good weight loss and taking many drugs.

It just didn't work. My triglycerides were dangerously sitting at so I took his advice, stopped drinking so much pop, started eating what I thought was a healthy diet, and I eventually quit smoking. I'm 28 years old, and I had chest pains for at least 8 years. In the last few years I started getting the same sharp pains in my head.

At one point I even quit eating meat because of the chest pains, but they were always there. One day I ran into your website while searching for something that would clean blood clots, and from that day forward the sharp pains faded.

It's been about 45 days on this diet, but the pains were completely gone within days. I honestly haven't felt them since that day when I ate a package of bacon and a about 3 pounds of hamburger. I ate lots and lots of fatty meats, real butter, eggs, green beans mixed with butter and started feeling a lot more energetic and positive.

I always use to day dream in school, and now I know that was caused from sugar withdrawals. I am now sugar free. I've lost 15 pounds after years of being stuck at no matter what I did. I will always remember you as someone who saved and changed my life forever. Thank You very much.

The Merck Manual states that taking a treadmill or exercise stress test causes 1 in persons to suffer a heart attack or death. This is said to be "a small risk," but in fact it is an outrageous rate. If one person in had a heart attack or died while mowing the lawn, the daily death rate in the United States during summer would in the hundreds of thousands.

Keep in mind that a high percentage of those taking the treadmill stress test have mild or no heart disease and are not at risk whatsoever. The test proves they didn't have a heart attack at that energy level. Others who have artery blockage severe enough to be detected by the test are at an extreme risk of heart attack or death on the treadmill.

A test that shows a positive result upon death of the patient is absolutely ridiculous. The doctor tells the family members of the deceased, "Yep, he had heart disease all right. Medical treadmill stress tests can place an enormous load on the heart. This is especially dangerous for a person who has been diagnosed with heart disease or is suspected of having heart disease. The work load on the heart is a function of the heart rate pulse time the blood pressure differential.

The following formula shows the typical heart overload on an elderly man who was in fairly good shape. The top numbers represent heart rate times blood pressure differential during the treadmill stress and the bottom numbers represent the same at rest. The overload of the heart during the test was 8. This overload on the heart of the elderly person was outrageous. A massive class action lawsuit should be brought against the professional medical community by relatives of those people killed as a result of a medical treadmill heart stress test.

This class action lawsuit would be similar to that brought against the tobacco industry and the asbestos fiber industry for causing cancer in people exposed to those products. Nearly everyone has heard of a friend, relative, or neighbor who went to his heart doctor for an examination that included a treadmill stress test.

In many cases, the patient is aware of a heart condition and has been suffering from symptoms of heart disease. The standard medical procedure for the treadmill heart stress test is to stress the heart to the point of damage that is confirmed by the instruments. The typical instruments are electrocardiogram ECG or echocardiogram.

The patient is then told he has a heart problem. The point of damage is actually a mild heart attack. Many times the patient has a very serious heart attack right on the treadmill, collapses, and dies soon thereafter. More commonly, the patient goes home where he suffers a serious heart attack within hours or days and often dies. His death was caused by the doctor's unnecessary and dangerous test.

The death is easily dismissed because the patient was suffering from heat disease. This practice is not unlike the past medical practice of draining blood from the patient until he finally succumbed.

Never, never, ever take this kind of treadmill heart stress test. A treadmill heart stress test does not rule out coronary artery disease. It does not measure the amount of plaque in the heart arteries. A person can be given a good report by the doctor while having several arteries half plugged with plaque without either of them knowing it.

Treadmill stress test is not definitive, and it is dangerous. The name for this test is a Radionuclide Imaging or Radionuclide Angiography. This test is more predictable if the condition of the arteries has already been determined by an angiography , magnetic resonance angiography MRA or multislice spiral computed tomography MSCT. Even so any treadmill stress test is dangerous for the elderly. A nuclear isotope treadmill stress test is an accurate method for measuring blood flow to all areas of the heart during rest and under stress.

A radioactive isotope is injected in a vein of the arm while the patient is at rest. The patient then lies horizontally on the table of a machine, where a detector rotates about the chest area of the body.

The arms are placed above the head in a position that becomes very uncomfortable for the minute duration.

The device takes a second exposure before rotating in increments for a total of 30 exposures. The radiation from the heart creates a picture of the blood flow. The radiology exposures give a very precise picture of the blood flow in all heart arteries and heart muscle.

It shows the exact amount of artery blockage caused by plaque, artery fat, or other defects. It also shows areas of the heart muscle that may have been damaged by an earlier heart attack and the exact extent of the resulting scar tissue.

The resting test should be evaluated to determine the extent of the artery restrictions before proceeding to the treadmill stress test, but it rarely is. The report for the resting test and the stress test usually follows by a day or more. The treadmill stress test cannot be postponed because the radioactive isotopes have a very limited life. Therefore, one of the other tests should be done in advance to determine the condition of the arteries before taking this or any other treadmill stress test.

The patient is then taken to the treadmill, where ECG sensors are attacked. The maximum rate is calculated as minus the age. The patient is injected with another shot of the radioactive isotope one minute before the treadmill is allowed to be stopped. He is then taken immediately back to the radiology machines for another minute session of 30 pictures.

The resting pictures and stress pictures are read analyzed by a radiologist who prepares the report. This test is often used after placement of a stent or after artery bypass surgery as a tool to determine the effectiveness of the treatment and the condition of the heart.

It can also be used several years later for an ongoing evaluation of the patient's heart condition. It is a tool for detecting if stents, bypass arteries and other arteries are becoming plugged. However, the test could cause the patient to have another heart attack if any artery problems exist. Insulin is a Heart Disease-Causing Hormone.

Insulin is a hormone made by the beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas. Body cells require insulin in order to use blood glucose. Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone. The word anabolic means to build up, and insulin certain does this in a powerful way. Insulin pushes blood glucose into cells, where it produces energy in the form of work and heat.

Insulin is needed to convert excess blood glucose to triglyceride fatty acid. The insulin moves blood triglycerides in body fat cells for storage primarily as saturated fat. Most people don't understand that carbohydrates in low-fat whole grain bread and orange juice can be converted by the body to saturated body fat on the tummy and hips.

Carbohydrate intake is correlated with biomarkers for coronary heart disease in a population of overweight premenopausal women. Insulin packs glycated LDL cholesterol, glycated proteins, glycated hemoglobin, and oxidized polyunsaturated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids into arteries of the heart, neck, and legs peripheral arterial disease , causing blockages and death. Deposits in the neck arteries cause strokes. Insulin causes heart disease. A high level of blood insulin causes many unhealthy body reactions which eventually lead to diseases of all types.

Glucose from the excessive consumption of carbohydrates is turned into body fat by insulin. The insulin also deposits glycated LDL cholesterol and oxidized polyunsaturated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids into the arteries of the heart, neck, and legs causing heart attacks, strokes, blood clots, and other diseases. High blood glucose signals increasing insulin production until the pancreas becomes fatigued after many years, making diabetes seem age related.

Glucose rises uncontrollably when insulin production drops. The high level of blood glucose causes diseases of the eyes, kidneys, blood vessels, and nerves. Every step of the way, insulin's got its fingers in it and is causing cardiovascular disease.

It fills it with plaque, it constricts the arteries, it stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, it increases platelet adhesiveness and coaguability of the blood. Any known cause of cardiovascular disease insulin is a part of. It influences nitric oxide synthase. You produce less nitric oxide in the endothelium. We know that helps mediate vasodilatation and constriction, i. I mentioned that insulin increases cellular proliferation, what does that do to cancer? And there are some pretty strong studies that show that one of the strongest correlations to breast and colon cancer are with levels of insulin.

Hyperinsulinemia causes the excretion of magnesium in the urine. What other big mineral does it cause the excretion of? Over many years the onslaught of carbohydrates in the diet causes glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Carbohydrates drive insulin production, causing cardiovascular heart disease CHD.

Many heart attack patients first learn they are diabetic in the hospital emergency room, but they may not be told about the close relationship between their two conditions. Blood insulin reaches high levels and remains high as one progresses from hypoglycemia to Type II diabetes in which insulin production collapses.

Insulin is a very strong anabolic hormone. It pushes blood glucose into cells. Insulin also pushes omega-6 vegetable fatty acid molecules into the artery wall to start the process of atherosclerosis. The omega-6 vegetable fatty acid molecule is pushed between the "gap junction" of the endothelial cells where it gets stuck.

The omega-6 vegetable fatty acid molecules become oxidized and attacked by free-radicals. The immune system attacks the decaying omega-6 vegetable fatty acid molecules causing inflammation, and the body deposits cholesterol at the site in an attempt to patch up the injury.

Animal research with insulin proved many years ago that the artery will plug with atherosclerosis just downstream from the point of insulin injection. Insulin turns blood glucose into triglycerides and stores them as body fat. Insulin causes glucose to be chemically combined with cell membranes, LDL lipoprotein, blood hemoglobin, and other cells in an unhealthy process called glycation.

This process is similar to the caramelizing process in making candy. Insulin stimulates the unhealthy growth of artery smooth muscle cells causing arteriosclerosis hard, thick arteries and hypertension high blood pressure. Insulin stimulates the unhealthy growth of fibrous tissue, forming plaque in the arteries. Insulin stimulates the unhealthy growth of fibrinogen that thickens the blood and forms blood clots.

The entire process happens rather suddenly as insulin resistance peaks and insulin levels skyrocket. Insulin resistance is rarely mentioned as a heart disease risk even though diabetics with insulin resistance have four times the risk for developing heart disease. Seventy-five percent of diabetics die from heart disease. Doctors rarely measure insulin resistance or the blood insulin level during a health checkup.

Insulin is a major risk factor for many diseases but is mostly ignored. Carbohydrate consumption is the culprit behind most age-related diseases.

Absolute Scientific Proof Carbohydrates are Pathogenic. Eating a low-carbohydrate diet brings unhealthy body processes caused by insulin to a screeching halt. All humans react in the same way. People are not different from each another as the myth implies. The high-carbohydrate diet is not healthy for anybody even though some people may remain thin.

The metabolic typing diet is a myth. The variable among people is the amount of damage already done to the body by carbohydrates and insulin. This damage is incorrectly diagnosed as genetic. The scientific proof that insulin causes many "age-related" diseases is beyond question, yet the professional medical practitioners rarely measure the insulin level in patients. Most diabetics have never had their insulin level measured by their doctor.

Professional heart disease organizations rarely mention insulin as a heart disease risk or promote a low-insulin diet as a method of preventing heart disease. The carbohydrate - glucose - insulin cycle is getting away with mass murder while these professional organizations are saying, "Don't eat red meat or saturated fat.

Professional medicine almost universally ignores mountains of scientific evidence against dietary carbohydrates in favor of unproven myths against dietary saturated fats. The average cardiologist will tell you that heart disease is caused by cholesterol and fat in the diet. This is because the medical establishment and the American Medical Association AMA think of carbohydrates as an innocent and necessary dietary requirement, when in fact the scientific and health nutritional requirement for carbohydrates in the diet is ZERO, none.

Studies have consistently shown that the lower the dietary intake of carbohydrates, the better the long-term health. Heart disease is caused by the excessive consumption of carbohydrates in combination with a deficiency of protein and fat from animal sources. The "dirty little secret" in nutritional health is the high rate of heart disease among vegetarians. People are continually falling away from their vegetarian diet because they realize it is harming their health.

The vegetarians of Southern India eat a low-calorie diet very high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat. They have the shortest life span of any society on Earth, and their bodies have an extremely low muscle mass.

They are weak and frail, and the children clearly exhibit a failure to thrive. Their heart disease rate is double that of the meat eaters in Northern India. Journal of Applied Nutrition, , The optimal diet for humans can be determined by anthropological research studies that show humans have primarily been meat eaters.

Vegetarians and other low-fat diet proponents claim their diet reverses heart disease. However, the true effectiveness is highly questionable. The truth can be found in the forward section of Dr. Dean Ornish's book, Reversing Heart Disease, "The amount of reversal of coronary artery disease was real but relatively small. The body begins to consume itself for energy and in the process halts artery plaque buildup. This diet is not sustainable and leads to other diseases. Ornish is a staunch vegetarian.

Learn the truth about the terribly unhealthy vegetarian diet at: Vegan vs High-Protein Diet Debate. Vegetarians develop high cholesterol and can't correct it. Animal Rights Terrorists Strike Again? High-insulin hyperinsulinemia increases cardiovascular disease risks. Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: Hyperinsulinaemia is associated with increased long-term mortality following acute myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients. Insulin resistance as a predictor for restenosis after coronary stenting.

There is no science behind the Food Guide Pyramid. It was a scam from the beginning - a make-believe nutritional plan to limit the consumption of animal products. The results have been rampant heart disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, intestinal diseases, and a medical handbook full of other ailments. This is easy to prove. Simply go to a food count book or http: The results will show every nutritional requirement to be perfectly achieved. Carbohydrates are not required in the diet for any essential scientific reason.

Carbohydrates cause diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and intestinal diseases. Proof Saturated Fats are Healthy.

The assumption made by Nathan Pritikin and Senator George McGovern's committee that saturated fat caused heart disease is exceedingly shallow logic with no basis in science. The study of primitive societies easily proves saturated fat is not the villain. The committee blocked the testimony of professionals who knew the low-fat diet being pushed on the public was an extremely unhealthy diet. History has proven the low-fat diet theory was not only wrong but was backwards. High-insulin hyperinsulinemia increases Alzheimer's disease in mice studies.

A high fat, low carbohydrate diet improves Alzheimer's disease in mice. A report published today in the peer-reviewed, open access journal Nutrition and Metabolism, showed that a brain protein, amyloid-beta, which is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease, is reduced in mice on the so-called ketogenic diet. High levels of blood glucose, caused by glucose intolerance, in the presence hyperinsulinemia high levels of insulin , cause polysaccharide chains complex carbohydrates also called glycans to attach to serum blood proteins, artery proteins, hemoglobin red blood cells , omega-6 vegetable fatty acids, and LDL molecules, in a process called glycation.

In other words, high levels of blood glucose from eating a high-carbohydrate diet will plug up your heart arteries. The glycated proteins, glycated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids, glycated LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides form artery-clogging fatty deposits called atherosclerotic plaques.

White blood cells, called immune system macrophages , ingest the glycated proteins, glycated LDL, glycated hemoglobin, and oxidized omega-6 vegetable fatty acids. The macrophages swell to form foam cells that attach to the sticky artery walls, narrowing the artery and restricting blood flow.

People suffering a heart attack are frequently surprised by the doctor who tells them they are also in a middle stage of diabetes. High triglycerides are a prime indicator of heart disease risk. Many people think a high level of blood triglycerides is caused by eating fat because triglycerides are fat lipids in the blood, but this is not true. The body converts carbohydrates to blood glucose first and then converts the glucose to triglycerides.

The blood carries the triglycerides to the fat cells of the body, where they are converted to body fat. Insulin is the prime motivator in this process. Insulin also deposits the triglycerides in the arteries. Reducing carbohydrates in the diet stops this deadly process. The low-fat diet actually promotes the production of triglycerides and promotes heart disease.

The low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet reduces triglycerides quickly and dramatically. A low-fat diet reduces the level of good HDL cholesterol and increases heart disease risk.

The high-fat diet recommended here raises the level of the good HDL cholesterol and reduces heart disease risk. HDL cholesterol acts as a vacuum cleaner in the arteries to remove plaque buildup and prevent heart attacks.

HDL removes cholesterol from the arteries and carries it back to the liver for reprocessing and discharge into the intestinal tract. Many people with a normal weight and a normal reading of total cholesterol will develop plugged arteries and suffer a heart attack. Fifty percent of the people who suffer a heart attack have a normal level of total cholesterol. A blood test taken after a heart attack will generally show a low HDL cholesterol level and a high triglyceride level.

Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by a ruptured blood vessel or capillary in the brain. High blood pressure is not the only cause. The strength and health of the blood vessels are vitally important but often overlooked. This is the reason many people suffer a hemorrhagic stroke even though they have normal or below normal blood pressure. The low-fat, low-cholesterol vegetarian diet commonly results in dangerously low blood cholesterol, which makes one prone to a hemorrhagic stroke.

Low HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for hemorrhagic strokes. The low-carbohydrate diet with high levels of protein and natural animal fats provides the nutrition necessary to build strong, healthy blood vessels.

This paradox presents a challenge to differentiate the effects of dietary fat on lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease risk in men and women, in the different lipid disorders, and in the metabolic syndrome. A reduction in HDL is a heart disease risk factor. These studies prove eating saturated fat is healthy.

The ratio is very important. Many organization are insisting that everyone be put on cholesterol-lowering drugs if the LDL level is greater than , but what does the drug manufacturer say? Simvastatin brand name Zocor. Your doctor may prescribe Zocor in addition to a cholesterol-lowering diet if your blood cholesterol level is too high, and if you have been unable to lower it by diet alone.

For people at high risk of heart disease, current guidelines call for considering drug therapy when LDL levels reach For people at lower risk, the cut-off is For those at little or no risk, it's Homocysteine Increases Heart Disease Risk.

Homocysteine is an amino acid that has an effect on the heart and heart disease. It is commonly included in blood test measurements. Homocysteine is required for the body to operate properly, but too much homocysteine can be destructive to the heart and artery walls. Homocysteine is known to damage blood vessels by injuring the endothelial cells that line arteries and by stimulating the growth of smooth muscle cells. Homocysteine can also interfere with the normal blood clotting mechanism and can increase the risk of clots that can cause a stroke or heart attack.

Concern for homocysteine as a cardiovascular risk factor dates back to , when Dr. McCully discovered that children born with a genetic error of metabolism called homocystinuria occasionally died at a very young age from advanced arterial disease.

Homocystinuria is the term used when homocysteine levels are abnormally high. High levels of homocysteine are not caused from eating meat. High levels of homocysteine are more likely caused by deficiencies of protein, vitamins, and minerals.

Homocysteine can be reduced by taking high levels of vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid. Do not supplement the diet with methionine amino acid. The metabolism of methionine produces homocysteine, which is a sulfur-containing amino acid. It exists at a critical biochemical juncture between methionine metabolism and the biosynthesis of the amino acids cysteine and taurine. Homocysteine is used to build and repair tissues, but an excess of homocysteine has been shown to be a major factor in hardening and obstruction of the arteries causing full-blown heart disease.

Nature's Answer To Drugs is the best book for determining the correct vitamin and mineral dosage for therapeutic disease curing effect, excessive dosage amounts and normal recommendations. Atkins' Vita-Nutrient Solution discusses the vital function of vitamins and nutritional supplements and provides a list of diseases and complaints that the supplements can help cure or alleviate.

Elevated levels of C-reactive protein CRP and serum amyloid A SAA are inflammatory markers that have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. They are symptoms of heart disease and not the cause. CRP is commonly included in blood test measurements. CPK is an enzyme catalyzing the breakdown of phosphocreatine to phosphoric acid and creatine.

CPK is a measure of the breakdown of muscle tissue muscle wasting. This enzyme is the first to be elevated after a heart attack 3 to 4 hours. It is very likely that CPK will be elevated if blood is drawn a day or two after a weight-bearing workout. However, CPK could also be elevated in cases of severe catabolism where skeletal muscle is being broken down to provide glucose to the brain and in cases of heart wasting where something is attacking heart tissue.

High blood insulin levels can trigger high levels of adrenaline and cortisol in response. The adrenaline and cortisol are catabolic hormones that can break down skeletal protein to produce glucose.

Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Vegetable Fats are Inflammatory. Solid scientific research shows polyunsaturated omega-6 vegetable fatty acids are highly inflammatory and should be strictly avoided by everyone to prevent heart disease, cancer, bowel disease, arthritis, or many other autoimmune diseases.

Healthy people should seriously limit these omega-6 fatty acids. Michael Eades in his book, Protein Power Lifeplan both have long sections describing the unhealthy effects caused by eating these oils. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. They are found in vegetable, seed and nut oils such as safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, peanut oil and others.

Omega-3 fatty acids fish oils are the essential healthy fats that help to prevent heart disease. Alpha-linolenic fatty acid is one of two fatty acids traditionally classified as "essential. As a result, we must be sure our diet contains sufficient amounts of both alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent and cure many diseases.

They are found in fish oils and cod liver oil. Omega-3 fatty acids improve the flexibility of red blood cell membranes that allow blood to flow more easily and prevent clots. Omega-3 fatty acids are also highly anti-inflammatory. Everyone including babies and children should supplement their diet with Carlson's lemon flavored cod liver oil that also provides vitamins A and D. Secrets of the Edible Oil Industry.

Common cholesterol - heart disease risk theories are highly suspect on the low-carbohydrate diet because cholesterol is not the basic cause of heart disease. Cholesterol does not have a connection to heart disease on the low-carbohydrate diet because the foundational causes of diabetes and heart disease are dietary carbohydrates and blood insulin levels, not cholesterol. These chain reactions cause plaque buildup in arteries, leading to a heart attack.

Polyunsaturated vegetable oils and hydrogenated vegetable oils trans fats are also prime contributors to plugged heart arteries. These vegetable oils are highly inflammatory and contribute to heart disease, intestinal diseases, and cancer. An LDL cholesterol blood test reading is meaningless on the low-carbohydrate diet presented here because of the absence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Even so, the diet presented here lowers LDL cholesterol, as demonstrated in Maryanne's story above.

On the other hand, a low LDL blood test reading in the presence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia gives no protection whatsoever, as demonstrated in William's story above.

He discovered the sad fact that cholesterol-lowering drugs are worthless when glucose and insulin levels are high. All diabetics would have eventually died of coronary artery disease if they hadn't died for some other reason, such as accidents, cancer, or a stroke.

Diabetics who switch to the low-carbohydrate diet presented here can escape this horrible destiny. Cholesterol, Energy, Healing, Sex, and Babies. The low-carbohydrate, high-fat, high-protein diet promotes the formation of lighter density LDL cholesterol and discourages the formation of the more dense LDL cholesterol.

The HDL cholesterol is increased while reducing blood levels of triglycerides, glucose, and insulin. All of these factors move in the direction of preventing and reversing coronary artery disease. The low-fat diet promoted by the American Heart Association actually promotes heart disease, as can be seen by the current heart disease epidemic.

The in vitro and in vivo evidence that small, dense LDL are more atherogenic than normal larger, buoyant LDL is summarized, and the particularly high-risk state conferred by increased numbers of small, dense LDL is delineated.

For centuries primitive Eskimos lived in igloos eight months of the year on the frozen Arctic Ocean north of the Canadian Yukon Territory. They lived only on seal meat and blubber. The women huddled in the igloo with a small oil fire tending the children for months on end. The only exercise was a quick dash into the darkness at 40 degrees below zero to quickly relieve oneself. They were trim, sexy women who gave birth easily.

They did not have any signs of heart disease, cancer, or diabetes whatsoever. Upon moving to the white man's settlement, the Eskimo women became obese, and all of these diseases exploded just as with the white women.

Running for hours day after day does not prevent heart disease. Excessive exercise most likely increases the chances of having a heart attack. Runners tend to eat a high-carbohydrate diet, thinking they need extra glucose for energy.

This is not the healthiest approach. The glucose causes insulin resistance and raises the blood insulin level, which by itself is a heart disease risk. The heart muscle burns fatty acids for energy, not glucose. The following two marathon runners are prime examples of those who exercise excessively but still develop heart disease at a relatively young age. Fixx wrote two books on the health benefits of exercise and running, but he died in from a heart attack at the young age of 52, in his running shoes, while on a daily run.

Many try to cover the facts by blaming it on his heredity or smoking which he quit nine years earlier, but Fixx developed severe coronary artery disease during his running years. He had developed atherosclerosis. There was also evidence of a recent heart attack. In addition, his heart was somewhat enlarged, a condition doctors call hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This condition occurs when the heart muscle become thick, making it more difficult for the heart to work. Exercise and low weight certainly helped him, but that could not overcome the disastrous effects of his diet.

Fixx bought into the myth that fat in the diet is unhealthy when in fact it is essential to life. He also became a vegetarian and refrained from eating meat. Fixx bought into the new philosophy that runners needed high levels of carbohydrates in their diets. He ate a very low-calorie diet to keep from gaining weight due to his excessive carbohydrates intake.

He failed to take any vitamins, minerals, or other supplements on the false premise that his vegetarian diet could provide them. He undoubtedly suffered from an amino acid deficiency compounded by an essential fatty acid deficiency and further compounded by a refusal to supplement with vitamins and minerals. Amino acids from protein are the building blocks of life, and it is difficult to obtain all of the amino acids required by one's diet without eating meat, fish and fowl.

The effects of these deficiencies take many years to manifest themselves, and the resultant disease can be just about anything in the book. This makes it extremely difficult to pinpoint the cause and effect of a low-fat, low-protein diet on one's health.

People fail to understand that the minimum requirement for carbohydrates in the diet is zero - none. The Myths of Vegetarianism. Brian Maxwell was a marathon runner, but he died of a heart attack at a very young age. His exercise, diet and energy bar did not provide the awesome health as commonly expected, but more than likely caused his early death.

A former world-class marathon runner, Maxwell reportedly collapsed in a post office, and emergency personnel were unable to resuscitate him. The PowerBar company has become a multimillion-dollar empire since Maxwell and his wife, a nutritionist, founded it in Maxwell thought of the idea to make PowerBars while running a He had to stop the race after 21 miles, the point at which experts say the body stops burning carbohydrates and starts to burn muscle tissue.

He represented Canada in many international competitions as a long-distance runner. Maxwell has proven once again that exercise does not prevent heart disease. He has also confirmed that the high-carbohydrate diet causes heart disease. His wife was a professional nutritionist and co-developer of the PowerBar, yet they created a "health product" that is pure garbage nutritionally.

They both were strong promoters of conventional high-carbohydrate nutrition. She is rich, but he is dead. Here is the list of ingredients for PowerBars that are laden with deadly carbohydrates and simple sugars: High fructose corn syrup Grape and pear juice concentrate Maltodextrin Brown rice Glycerin A bunch of other unhealthy junk Marathon runners develop plugged heart arteries for a very simple reason.

This occurs when the diet is high in carbohydrates over a number of years. Athletes binge on complex carbohydrates because "carb-loading" is thought to give the best performance. Over time, the body becomes insulin resistant causing the blood insulin level to rise unnoticed.

The runner can stay perfectly thin while the insulin level approaches that of a person with hypoglycemia. The insulin packs the glucose into cells for energy, but it is also packs omega-6 vegetable fatty acids and LDL cholesterol into the heart artery walls, causing coronary artery disease. Athletes should live and train on the low-carbohydrate diet in order to prevent insulin resistance. Carbohydrates can be eaten before races if desired. Even so, carb-loading only lasts throughout half of a marathon race, and the body is forced to burn stored fat for energy.

Burning dietary fat and stored body fat is the most healthy way to live and compete. As a society, we are clearly in a state of nutritional crisis and in need of radical remedies. The statistics are sobering. After 30 years of seemingly solid advice aimed at lowering dietary fat, Americans have grown collectively fatter than ever. High density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol is called the good cholesterol. H DLs are synthesized in the liver and small intestine, as primarily protein-rich disc-shaped particles.

These newly-formed HDLs are nearly devoid of any cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Natural animal fats in the diet increase the level of HDL cholesterol in the blood in a highly desirable way. The HDL cholesterol molecules function like little scrub brushes to clean the LDL cholesterol, rancid polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids, plaque, and other deposits from the artery walls. The cholesterol is carried within the protein shell of the HDL particle, making it swell into a spherical shape.

The HDL cholesterol carries the LDL cholesterol, rancid polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids, and arterial plaque to the liver, where it is reprocessed and discarded in the intestines. The high-fat, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet presented here reverses heart disease by removing deposits from the arteries. This can occur because the blood insulin level is kept at an absolute minimum. Insulin make deposits in the arteries and prevents existing deposits from being removed by the HDL cholesterol.

Therefore, it is imperative that one eat a low-carbohydrate diet in order to prevent and reverse deposits in the arteries of the heart, neck, and legs. Foods that must come a long distance often require more preservatives and generate more air pollution from the petroleum products used to ship them.

For this reason food packaging does not usually say where something is grown. Buying from a local grower or farmer reduces or eliminates such environmentally unsound practices. Food web diagrams emphasize the circular complexity of feeding relationships. Cut down a forest and make a localized drought. Deforestation is a direct cause of spreading desertification worldwide. Parallel damage to the human psyche remains largely unexplored. It was our Indian rule to keep our fields very sacred. We did not like to quarrel about our garden lands.

One's title to a field once set up, no one ever thought of disputing it; for if one were selfish and quarrelsome, and tried to sieze land belonging to another, we thought some evil would come upon him There is a story of a black bear who got into a pit that was not his own, and he had his mind taken away from him for doing so.

Remains of their shells produces chalk. All told, these industries put tons of carbon dioxide into the air every second: Although none of these fuels carries much, if anything, left from the dinosaurs, these now-extinct saurons have come to symbolize them with an eerie persistence.

Invented in Concord by Henry French. Yields were very high compared to traditional agricultural methods. See Density Dependence, Predator Switching. Types include cold fronts cold air pushing back warm air--often bringing stormy weather , warm fronts, stationary fronts, dry lines air barriers separating moist from dry air--very common in the American Midwest , and occluded fronts when a cold front catches up with a warm one; the resulting rotations of air can generate cyclones.

Many birds and bats are frugivores. Their long hyphae filaments aerate and bind soils, aid water transport, cycle nutrients, decompose organic matter, and allow roots to absorb nutrients from the ground. The hypothesis was invented to answer the question of how certain environmental variables gasses in the atmosphere, ocean salinity levels that should be unstable remain in equilibrium. Think about a population of rats in which all but one have striped tails.

A catastrophe kills all but the one, who goes on to breed. DNA duplication errors often create new genes. Gregor Mendel discovered genes and wrote about them--he called them "factors"--in , but his work was ignored for 45 years. Their chromosomal order controls physical characteristics. Divided into eons, eras, periods, and epochs.

We are now in the Phanerozoic Eon that started million years ago when animals began to fossilize in large numbers, the Cenozoic Era started 65 million years ago when the dinosaurs blew out , Quaternary Period roughly 2 million years ago, when pre-humans appeared , Holocene Epoch 10, years ago, when the last Ice Age ended.

Geysers and volcanos are naturally occuring examples. Many contain cirques on the valley floor. Peat is a frequent result. In Russia gleization has been used to grow an organic "liner" to hold water in leaky ponds and dugouts. The scientific emphasis has swung from whether global warming exists to how to minimize the damage it will cause. One example of many: If the Greenland ice sheet melts, sea levels worldwide will rise twenty feet.

The tide rises in Tuvalu, but unnaturally high tides are not seen only in the Pacific. They are being spotted now all over the world. An energy source for both plants and animals; it breaks down from ingested carbohydrates.

Cellulose and chitin contain it. Most Americans do not realize that eating processed food almost always means eating something genetically altered, in part because the foods are not normally labelled as such. Similar to rift valleys. Also a geology term for land leveling by deposition and erosion. Used as an alternative from growing a plant from seed. Grafting produces many hybrids. Global warming is believed to have cut world grain production by 93 million tons in alone.

Rich in quartz and potassium feldspar orthoclase. Jared Diamond's name for the human artifacts, ornaments, paintings, and other symbolic innovations that appeared rather suddenly 40, years ago.

The "higher" plants evolved from it. It is usually applied before the second crop usually a food crop grows to avoid overheating it or depriving it of nutrients.

This natural effect is amplified by growing quantities of greenhouse gasses--carbon dioxide, nitroux oxide, chlorofluorocarbons CFCs , ozone, and methane--that trap reflected radiant energy as it tries to leave the planet. Some would see a tragic, bitter irony in using up topsoil, polluting the rivers and oceans, and blackening the atmosphere while unconsciously converting the entire world into a giant greenhouse.

Ralph Metzner prefers the term "green psychology" because instead of sounding like yet another discipline or departmental specialty, it refers to what psychology should have been doing all along: In his book by the same name he notes, "The absence of any consideration given to the ecological basis of human life in textbooks and theories of psychology is startling: The resulting production techniques boosted wheat yield enormously, and their use in India and Pakistan saved millions of lives.

But because such production depends on irrigation which invites salt , heavy machinery which compacts soil , and chemical fertilizers and pesticides made from petroleum products, the long-term ecological consequences have been devastating. Gross domestic product GDP -- Gross domestic product is a measure of the total production and consumption of goods and services in the United States.

Because it does not take resource depletion or pollution into account, the GDP gives a false picture of the wealth of nations. This would lend evolution a forward-looking or "teleological" capacity most Darwinians reject. Gardeners work diatomaceous soil into the earth in spring to keep grubs from eating plant roots.

Planted around an orange tree: The guild is a version of companion planting. It separates warm surface air currents from cold downdrafts. Because emission slows as the isotope decreases in radioactivity, taking half the life of its decay is more meaningful than trying to estimate the entire amount. Half-lives range from millionths of a second to millions of years. Most plants need less salty soil to grow in. By contrast, most of the cells that make up the body are diploid: Takes about two weeks.

Caused by clay compation, iron precipitation, or cementing by calcium carbonate precipitates. Growing plants like dandelions can loosen it up. Mining and agricultural machinery, for example. Called a promontory when high and narrow. Healthy Planet Food Pyramid: Lawrence Buzzell-Saltzman's model of sustainable consumption of local food. Focusing on where we get our food, the pyramid rests on three levels: The average load of food must now travel 1, miles: Too much lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, arsenic, copper, or cadmium in soil can damage plants.

Cattails, rushes, and reeds are helophytes. Herbs are grown for seasonings, for medicinal use, and for attracting beneficial insects like bees into gardens. They do best in at least six hours of sunlight daily and are harvested as the first flower buds open. It offers a more compact growing space and protects the plants inside it from weeds and wind. Insects are the most numerous herbivores.

All fungi and animals are heterotrophs. A ten-dollar word for "self-correction. This is done to keep cream from rising to the top. Homogenized milk is suspected by some of contributing to several health problems, including hardening of the arteries and diminished resistance to cancer.

We walk upright; so did early hominids. Recent evidence suggests a genetic component. The opposite of a Graben Fault. Indigenous societies once believed on the brink of starvation until "civilized" by monoculturalists e.

Using too much can burn plant roots. Most of the important micronutrients are cations; the most important anions are boron and molybdenum. Agribusiness companies produce and sell hybrids that do not reproduce in order to retain a monopoly on seeds.

Any statistical justification of ugliness or violence is a revelation of stupidity. Wittfogel coined this term to apply only to Oriental despots, its practice is worldwide, as in the Los Angeles water wars of urban expansion and assimilation and Israel's diversion of the Jordan, a project that led to the Six Day War of The definition could be broadened to apply to enterprises like OPEC that monopolize vital resources. It alters with changes in the water table.

Petroleum, natural gas, coal, and methane are examples. Of the fresh water in rivers, streams, reservoirs, etc. Salt, glycerin, ethyl alcohol. In crabs, pepper spot disease occurs when the flatworms that infect the crab are infected by a parasitic protozoan.

An excess of nutrients eutrophication from fertilizer runoffs, air pollution, sewage, soil erosion, and other sources can spark enough algal growth to deprive the water of oxygen and kill off fish and other organisms that need it.

Granite is an intrusive igneous rock. In urban areas the resulting storm runoffs spread pollution and waste, erode whatever soils they reach, and threaten communities with flash flooding. Moss sometimes means a lot of acid in the soil, for example, although to a seasoned eye, most plants can serve as indicators.

Sometimes used to mean a species that moves into an ecosystem from outside. Inhibition Model of Succession: Thomas Wilson's rant appeared in , his cry unheeded by generations of researchers who emulated a Latin-speaking priesthood by locking away their concepts in sacred verbal sacristies: Among all other lessons this should first be learned, that wee never affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but to speake as is commonly received: Some seeke so far for outlandish English, that they forget altogether their mothers language.

And I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were alive, thei were not able to tell what they say: According to integral theory, every phenomenon can be studied either individually or collectively, and from the inside or the outside.

Integral ecology applies this by exploring the subjective, measurable, cultural, and developmental dimensions of a given ecological situation or problem rather than staying solely with one angle of attack.

When done properly interplanting provides a natural mulch or ground cover and inhibits pest infestations. A radioactive cloud drifting halfway around the world demonstrates an ecologically significant linkage between its point of origin and its destination; "everything is one" is verbal gas. As Charles Manson liked to put it, "If all is one, then nothing is wrong. Ions play a key role in many biochemical reactions. For a segment of crust, buoyancy depends on its thickness and density.

U has the same number of protons, but not neutrons, as U, but U will not fission itself into an atomic chain reaction when lumped together. Such layers form the bottom of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Worldwide population growth, for instance. The two polar jet streams are the strongest. They seem to play no role in anything genetic. Kaolinite Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide: Common in clays everywhere, including China, where its name comes from. Used to make paint, rubber, ceramic, plastics, and the glossy stuff they put on magazines.

Left by a chunk of melted glacier. Under pressure it turns into a tarry hydrocarbon. Named after German chemist Hans Krebs, who discovered the cycle in See Glycolysis, Carbohydrate Catabolism.

K is the constant for carrying capacity in terms of population growth. This used to be true for whales before their environment was changed. Symptoms include bloating, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and nausea. People of Northern European descent tend to suffer it less because of an evolutionary transformation brought about by milk-drinking, a practice other humans have traditionally given up after infancy.

Laminar Flow Streamlined Flow: The air over land is of higher pressure because the land, heated during the day, is warmer than the water. La Niña "the girl": An intensification of normal conditions in North America, stormy in the northwest and dry in the southwest. The opposite of an El Niño. Triggers huge landslides in recently deforested areas. Laterites rich in aluminium oxides are mined for their aluminium ore. An east-west line connecting places of the same latitude is a parallel. Latitude is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

In other words, life gets richer toward the equator and less so nearer the poles. According to Bill Mollision see Permaculture , cultivated lawns go back to the British Empire and the country estate, both in the business of taming the natural world. Their demand for water is second only to that of agricultural irrigation.

Many require petroleum products to maintain and to fertilize, and pesticides to keep pristine despite their ecological vulnerability. Pesticides, fertilizers, poisons from mines or feedlots, and wastes from industrial plants sometimes leach into groundwater.

Leaching also refers to washing the salt from soil to increase its fertility. All legumes contribute to the nitrogen, phosphorus key to flowering and seed formation , and potassium nutrition of the crops that follow. Alfalfa is the heaviest nitrogen producer. Levees built to containn floods can actually accelerate floodwaters by narrowing natural channels. Used to make rattan. Ynestra King's term for politics grounded in care and relationships, in eros rather than logos only.

The alga makes sugar through photosynthesis, and the fungi fills out the organism while holding it to a surface rocks, bark, etc. Lichens pioneer harsh or sparse environments, provide food for grazers, and break down rocks through chemical weathering. Hart Merriam in to classify environments by temperature and rainfall.

There are eight major life zones: Limestone is often added to cement and other construction materials, including blocks and facings. Limnology is the study of lakes and ponds. With proteins and carbohydrates, membrane-strengthening lipids provide cells with their structure. When earthquakes trigger it, walls, dams, buildings, and foundations are liable to collapse.

Frequent near coastal developments and areas of poor drainage. Its erosion forms "cat steps" that slide off each other. A frequent component of fertile topsoil. A line connecting places of the same longitude is a meridian. It is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. Unlike latitude, longitude cannot take the poles and equator as fixed points of reference. It must rely more on time, which is why accurate long-voyage navigation had to await the invention of an accurate timepiece.

Soils lacking one or more of them are sometimes given amendments to add what's needed. It might have evolved from scrapie , a similar disease that infects sheep and goats. In Britain, the practice of feeding cattle with the remains of other cattle not known to have been infected helped spread the disease in the mids. Given how the meat packing industry treats them anyway, no wonder the cows are mad. Lava is exposed magma. The poles occasionally switch, also, which last happened , years ago.

It shields the Earth from the highly charged plasma mostly hydrogen particles of the solar wind that emanates from the sun. Vandana Shiva's term for what usually goes by the name of development and in actuality results in widespread poverty and ecological destruction.

Maldevelopment contrasts with "realwealth," the actual richness and diversity of a community. Why does progress so often look like destruction? About 5, species in all, and all descended from a common ancestor of the anteater, platypus, marsupials like the kangaroo, and placentals. The extinction of the dinosaurs Their trunks block wind, and their roots provide habitats and a barrier to erosion.

Limestone marble is white. Marbles like those played with on street corners were once made of marble; the common method of shooting one is called fulking no kidding. It's considered impolite to fulk with another person's marbles without permission. It tends to soften temperature extremes. Used as a fertilizer or a source of lime for lime-poor soils. The mass extinction now underway threatens more than half the animals on Earth, some of whom have already vanished; others, like the great apes, are about to.

For a tribute to what no longer lives, see the Altars of Extinction project online. Tends to occur at higher elevations. Contributes to soil cohesion and the formation of helpful colloids.

Its larvae also eat vegetables and nuts. Yellow-brown with reddish purple eyes. Chemical sprays do not control them effectively because of the brief time it takes the adult to lay eggs below the surface of the offspring's future food source.

Braconid wasps and other parasites seem to do a more thorough job see Biocontrol. Lewis Mumford's term for a mechanical sequestering of human energy into rigid social hierarchies. His examples include the labor force that built the Pyramids and the armies of both World Wars. The macrofauna like fish depend on them for food. Because each must contain half a future offspring's DNA one set from the father and one from the mother , the kind of cell division mitosis used elsewhere will not work--it would double the amount of DNA needed.

To prevent this, meiosis turns a cell containing 46 chromosomes into four sex cells containing 23 chromosomes each haploids through an initial extra stage that mixes chromosomes. Aside from that stage, meiosis is like Mitosis.

Recent research supports Susan Blackmore's theory that the human brain evolved rapidly to make itself a better habitat for human memes. Such memes would be available for sexual selection. Different sorts of meristem make the various tissues some for bark, some for leaves, etc. Merophytes build much of a plant, the leaves and stems in particular. About half of mesocyclones spawn tornados.

All the physical and chemical factors in the production anabolism and breakdown catabolism of protoplasm and energy. Metabolism is the fire of biological life. Called prograde metamorphism when the change agents are intensifying, and retrograde when they are decreasing. A frequent occurrence below the Earth's surface. Metamorphic rocks make up most of the planet's crust. Although local groups might die out, the migrants keep the species alive. Term coined by Richard Levins, Can be used to offset too much heat, light, or cold in the surrounding area.

Which implies that the two are as separate as self and world were thought to be another Cartesian gem. A more profound philosopher spoke to this centuries before Descartes and his coordinate-plane approach: When you wrack your brain trying to unify things without knowing that they are already one, it is called "three in the morning.

So he said, "How about four in the morning and three in the evening? Over 2, varieties have been discovered. In archeology, the replacement of fossil bone with water-borne minerals. The implied dualism is older than Descartes. Mitochondria also regulate bodily heat and refine the oxygen that would otherwise poison us. They look like upturned pillbugs. Some tiny marine protozoans are mixotrophs. Chemistry is the scientific study of molecular reactions. The measurements are more physically precise than the Richter Scale it replaced.

See Polyclimax Theory for a less capitalistic perspective. Caused by sedimentary rocks bending over a fault line. This generally requires large quantities of artificial fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, nematocides, and other potentiall toxic measures to kill bugs and increase yield.

Even with these chemical aids, monocultures are prone to disease outbreaks and pest infestations. Wes Jackson New Roots for Agriculture: Monoculture invites pests, diseases, erosion. Common near the Indian Ocean. Wetter than a heath but drier than a bog. Often acidic, cold, and rich in carbon content.

They prefer dark, moist locations. The tunnel reaches downward until it spreads over the underlying bedrock. In the case of Greenland and Antartica, moulins are lubricating the remaining sheets of ice from below, making it easier for them to snap off and melt in the sea.

Even compost is basically treated mulch. Mulching a garden reduces erosion, conserves soil moisture, inhibits weed growth, and provides the soil with organic matter. Can be symbiotic or nonsymbiotic. Similar to a virus. The fungus is nourished and housed by the roots it transports soil nutrients into. Almost nothing green would grow without this symbiosis.

Masanobu Fukuoka's method for letting roots till the soil instead of machines. Decrease cultivation and you decrease weeds. Leguminous cover crops and mulching instead of fertilizer. Fukuoka practices what he calls the "no-plowing, no-fertilizing, no-weeding, no-pesticides, do-nothing method of natural farming.

His rice yields have been impressive. He reads like kind of a nut: The bat that hears better than the rest stands a better chance of living long enough to pass on that kind of hearing. In this way certain favorable genes--favorable to adapting to environment pressures--gradually become more numerous in a given population. Discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in rather, discovered years earlier by both; Darwin beat Wallace to the press in Whether the environment shapes completely passive life-material or interacts with an emerging and ever-more-conscious creative potentiality is a most interesting current debate.

Because the sun and moon stand at right angles to each other, their tidal pulls partially nullify each other, resulting in a lesser tide. Contrast with Spring Tide. Can be parasitic as with the trichina and the hookworm or free-living.

Neurons were thought to work somewhat like electric switches: These chemicals then trigger a pulse or inhibit one in other neurons. As it turns out, however, each neuron is more like a microchip than a simple switch. How much of the brain a person uses at once, or regularly, is another matter.

The adult brain contains about 10 billion neurons, with the brain as a whole drawing watts of power, and with an ultimate storage capacity of very roughly terrabytes: It's hard to estimate because each dendrite contacts about 10, other neurons in extraordinarily complicated neural nets. Some venoms are neurotoxins that paralyze the prey. To take a leaf from George Carlin's book, this is one of those ideas like walking up to someone, declaring, "I have nothing to say to you," and walking away.

Neutrons and protons make up most of the atom's mass. Falls occur at nickpoints. Artificially manufactured nitrates are used in fertilizers and explosives. Nitrogen Cycle or Nitrification: Bacteria, legumes, and algae convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates that enter plant roots before turning into protoplasm that decomposers eventually break down again. Examples include lead, mercury, arsenic, plastics, and synthetics. The resulting heat drives electric generators.

Although the average nuclear plant creates tons of highly toxic byproducts and wastes a year, no one has thought up a safe way to deal with it plutonium has a half-life of 24, years. The tilt makes seasons possible because at any given position in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, half of the planet will lean toward the sun as the other half leans away from it.

Often composed of rhyolite. Franciscan priest William of Occam's admonition against unnecessary plurality in explanations of something not understood. In other words, simple explanations requiring fewer assumptions crop circles are cut by pranksters on tractors tend to work better than those requiring more assumptions crop circles are cut by extraterrestrials who come here by an unknown means to make designs through an unknown method for unknown reasons before departing again without leaving any other evidence of their visit.

Chalquist Trimming of Occam's Razor: Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain: The plates are about 75 kilometers thick. Volcanism at the mid-ocean ridges produced them million years ago. Its dark, spellbinding, "oildorado" properties include convincing large groups of people to vote against cheap public transportation and elevating pirates and robber barons into heads of nation-states. Logging old growth forests triggers ecological consequences, some known loss of water, rainfall, habitat, oxygen, carbon, etc.

Paul Shepard's term for the emotional and spiritual stunting that results from growing up in a civilization at war with nature and afraid of close contact with anything wild.

An example would be socializing hordes of people to be impulsive consumers, thereby strengthening their least mature tendencies while curtailing their capacity for critical thought. The fact that millions of people share the same vices does not make these vices virtues, the fact that they share so many errors does not make the errors to be truths, and the fact that millions of people share the same forms of mental pathology does not make these people sane.

The basic aim is to grow things naturally with a minimum of mechanical interference. Organic farming grew in popularity from Sir Albert Howard's published observations of Indian farming techniques Fairview Gardens, an organic farm and blossoming outpost of urban agriculture flourishing in Goleta, California. Originally developed by the Nazis during the s for use as bioweapons--"weapons of mass production," as President Bush would say.

Currently the most popular class of pesticides. Chemicals from poisons and explosives, tractors from caterpillar-treaded tanks: They rise as continental plates smash together case in point: Often results in rain on the windward side and a dry rain shadow on the lee side. Some fish do this to help them move among waters that vary in salinity. Ancient outgassing produced most of the Earth's atmosphere.

The second billion arrived in a mere century, the third in 44 years, and the fourth in 12 years. See Crash and Dieback. The ovary becomes the fruit. The protective ozone layer hangs 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It irritates the eyes. There seem to have been at least two other supercontinents before Pangaea.

Used to study how patches of invasive species impact an ecosystem, among other things. Not to be confused with the actings out of Patch Adams, a famous and dynamic doctor arrested for protesting naked in San Francisco. From the air they resemble beads on a cord. Certain viruses, bacteria, and authoritarian flag-waving fanatics are common examples of pathogens.

They tend to be parasites that weaken the organisms they feed upon until self-protective systems get rid of them. Fifty common chlorine compounds that grow stronger as they move up the food chain. Odorless and tasteless, they came from electronics manufacturing until laws were passed to forbid their production and release.

They are still plentiful in the air, soil, and water, however. Symptoms vary from depression, rashes, and acne to gastrointestinal and liver damage. Once laughed at by conservatives and pro-industrial energy advocates, the idea now gains ground as oil production continues to drop and gasoline prices soar.

The driving force is usually a bitter blend of perfectionistic fussiness and nerdy narcissism. The sight of psychologists, ecologists, and academics engaged in heated struggles about the definition of an ecological concept while the ecosphere burns is a lamentable one.

Often seen in dry regions. Perennials tend to take longer to produce a food yield than the quick-growing annuals so heavily exploited by traditional agriculture, but they last longer and do better in marginal soils. Usually refers to landforms shaped by glaciation. Perihelion occurs on the 3rd or 4th of January.

The opposite of Aphelion. Some of the heavier elements only exist in laboratories. According to Holmgren, permaculture is the use of systems principles and design thinking to make landscapes that mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature while yielding abundant food, fibre, and energy for human needs. Emphasis is on multi-use plants, cultural practices like sheet mulching and trellising, and encouraging animals to recycle nutrients and graze weeds. Community planning includes energy-efficient buildings, waste water treatment, and growing healthy soils as well as plants.

Shale is porous and therefore permeable, as is sand and gravel; granite and clay are not. Too many pests mean not enough predators, like fish or birds for mosquitos and gopher snakes for gophers, who also avoid daffodils, elderberry cuttings, and castor beans. Teas made of chamomile, stinging nettle, comfrey, or horsetail discourage harmful fungi. Marigolds control whiteflies, spearmint, tansy, and pennyroyal control ants, Mexican marigold controls nematodes and root pests, as do French marigolds; yellow nasturtiums decoy black aphids, which are repelled by spearmint, stinging nettle, southernwood, and garlic, and borage repels tomato worms while attracting helpful bees.

Substances with a pH below 7. Acids tend to be sour and corrosives, and bases alkaline compounds the opposite, and slippery. Rainy climates tend to produce acidic soil, dry climates alkaline soil.

For growing food, soil pH should fall between 6. Lime is sometimes added to acidic soil and sulfur to alkaline soil. The more humus in the soil to buffer it, the less pH impacts fertility.

Always requires an exchange of energy, whether an increase or decrease. Phenotypes are the aspect visible to natural selection: The phenotype extends to the organism's environment: Automobile and industrial exhausts are major contributors. Beams of light are composed of photons. Plants do it with a light-sensitive organelle called the chloroplast. Photosynthesis gave us not only food, but the atmosphere we breathe. Upon their photosynthetic selves hang the food webs of the oceans.

Many annuals are pioneer species. Many tend to be invasive. Carpels ovule-bearing leaves compose it, and stamens, petals and sepals ring it. A flower without stamens is a pistillate. Our cultural preferrence for space to place survived even the Einsteinian destruction of categories like absolute time and space: Casey points out, for example, the word morality goes back to a term for "custom," whereas the word ethics refers ultimately to the place where the horses went home at night.

Ed Casey's term for the felt, lived reconnection of space and place. An example is how the self experiences itself as firmly located somewhere specific rather than feeling lost in a sea of plots or coordinates. In the mids, placer mining by pick and pan gave way to powerful hydraulic hoses that washed away entire hillsides.

Larger organisms graze them like grass. As far back as , Alfred Wegener noted that the continents fit together like puzzle pieces into some lost whole see Pangaea, a name he coined. He was ignored, but in , Arthur Holmes decided that thermal convection currents in the mantle could move continents around.

These ideas also account for where the seafloor comes from molten material emitted through cracks between plates , how some of it disappears when the edge of one plate vanishes under another-- subduction , and why volcanic and mountain-building activity so often surfaces in belts plate edges.

Also, a dry desert lake bed. Mutations often do this. To use the example of Richard Dawkins, genes function not as blueprints, but as recipes. Late in the 7th century, northern peasants began using a new type of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut a furrow, a horizontal blade to slice under the surface, and a moldboard to turn it over: Rotating crosses called windmills pumped water from the sinking Netherlands, an effort first funded by the church.

Named after Pluto, god of the underworld, whose name also means "wealth. Tends to build outwards. Also, an animal without horns e. Contrast with Monoclimax Theory. Some are used in pesticides. Aside from causing cancer, their impact on humans is unknown, although test animals exposed to them lost the ability to reproduce. Not all polymers are organic, although most are. Human hair and skin color are polymorphous. Often used for toxicity testing of a nearby body of water. Sometimes obtained from wood ashes.

Its soils are usually fertile. Precession of the Equinoxes: The planet spins unevenly like a top on a table, pulled on by the sun and moon. It takes approximately 26, years to accomplish one complete wobble. Because of it, the spring equinox--the point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator late every March--appears from the earthly point of view to be sliding out of the constellation of Pisces and into Aquarius. Very common in rocky intertidals. Primary producers form the foundation of the food web.

Photochemical smog is a secondary air pollutant: Making them drains most of the nutrients out; processing them adds nutrients back in. Companies that sell processed food have begun marketing low-fat versions because of obesity concerns. A steady diet of processed meats hotdogs, hamburgers, etc. Stating that "Progress is inevitable" without mentioning who profits from such an aggressive ideology is like stating that "Rudolf the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a part of Christmas" without mentioning that Rudolf was invented in by Montgomery Ward as part of a holiday advertising blitz.

Rudolf's original name was Rollo, but they canned it because it announced the conquest theme too openly. Roughly synonymous with bacteria, but divided into eubacteria and archaeans. Methods include division separating one plant into several , ground layering bending a shoot from the parent plant into the soil so it will root there , budding inserting a parent plant bud into a second plant's rootstock , and grafting joining a stem from a parent plant onto a second plant's rootstock.

Protein constitutes the bulk of living matter, gives it structure, and has something to do in almost every aspect of cell operation. Examples include flagellates, amoebas, ciliates, sporozoa, radiolaria, and slime molds. Some microalgae are photosynthetic; most are microscopic; all sit at the base of the food web. The number of protons determines the nature of an element: Usually classed with the protists. Candidates include branches with a lot of bulk but little foliage, weak branches, V-shaped crotch branches, water sprouts, crisscrossed branches, double leaders, shaded branches, and crown sprouts.

Some bottom-feeding organisms eat it. An earthquake's first large jolt. Primary producers are at the bottom and predators are at the top. Pyramid of Energy Flow Trophic Pyramid: Many small organisms are needed to feed relatively few larger ones. Although the quark is our current most fundamental particle, some physicists suspect that in a universe of shifting relational energies, the very notion of a smallest chunk of building block is wrong-headed.

A chief component of sand and therefore sandstone. It is the second most abundant mineral after feldspar and is common in continental crust but rarer in oceanic crust. Rainforest coverage prevents desertification and drought and hosts more than half the world's animal species. Every day unchecked industrial development flattens a patch of rainforest the size of New York City. Clouds have often been drained of rainwater by the time they reach it over the mountain.

Contrast with Fundamental Niche. The reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant. Redox reactions transfer biological energy. In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced into sugars; in respiration, sugars are oxidized to make carbon dioxide and water.

Some lab evidence suggests that sexual reproducers fend off parasites more efficiently than asexual reproducers. Red Queen refers to a chess piece in Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking Glass who tells Alice that one must run just to stay in place.

Red tides can cause fish kills and infect shellfish with biotoxins. The mouse that makes it into the hole escapes the cat. An important habitat for both plants and animals who cannot make a home in solid rock. This includes giving key decision-making power, economic and political, to locals who know what the place where they live needs. The oceans' residence time is roughly 40, years. By contrast, the average turnover time of a stream is about two weeks.

In cells, the conversion of food e. In most organisms, respiration releases the energy that drives metabolism. Often associated with a deterioration in the environment. Even when cleaned, returned water of a temperature different than where it heads can be damaging, as when heated water from a power plant kills fish in an estuary. A potato is a thickened rhizome. Found in ferns, horsetails, and asparagus. Formed by either the submergence of a continental landmass or a sea level rise.

A sample with 50 species is richer than a sample with 5. Created in California by Charles Richter. See Moment Magnitude Scale. In streams pools often alternate with riffles. Often volcanic, and a site of new sea floor. It is possible that the African Rift Valley separated an apelike ancestor into two groups, thereby allowing us to evolve separately from today's chimpanzees. Riparian zones exchange organic matter between wet and dry habitats and regulate erosion, sedimentation, temperature, and nutrients.

Turkey has relied on this argument to take water from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers even though Syria and Iraq also depend on it. The argument is specious: Sometimes used as a synonym for riparian.

The RNA molecule is identical to DNA from which it is made except for the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil for thymine. Its slope is gentle where the ice advanced and jagged and plucked on the other side. Rocks are composed of crystals: Often seen in UFO photographs. Interrupts cycles of weeds, diseases, and insects; builds organic matter, improves soil structure. The most common protein on earth. Ruminants include cattle, bison, sheep, deer, goats, elk, giraffes, antelopes, and camels.

Their specialized stomach evolved to extract the maximum of nutrients from low-quality food. Seawater averages 34 ppt.

Around the world, million acres of once-arable land are too salty to grow food in. Heavily salinized land is not arable until the salt is leached out of it. Several civilizations have fallen because of the resulting ecological damage. Also, compounds produced when an acid's hydrogen atom is replaced by a metal atom.

Also, what unscrupulous fast food restaurants do with french fries and potato chips in order to sell more drinks to thirsty customers. Porous sandstone layers often hold water in aquifers. Fungi and bacteria are examples.

Also, to nick and weaken a seed coat enough for germination. It splits along parallel bedding planes. Often found in the company of tourmaline and garnet. Also, a plant whose deep roots and small leaves resist water loss. Named after the infected sheep's habit of scraping its itchy skin against trees and bushes. Common in dry and alpine regions. Shaped from eroded headlands.

Second Law of Thermodynamics: This is why trophic levels in a food web narrow as they rise. Grass-like plant that is adapted to grow in moist habitats. John Keats saw some withered from the lake.

Limestone, chert, halite, chalk, shale, sandstone. Using organic and mineral material to create the pellet stresses the environment less. Also, a dune formed by winds from multiple directions. Some have suggested that "interdependency" would be a better term for the renewed emphasis on local, sustainable projects, and democratic experiments in self-governance.

We know how to solve every food, clean energy, and sensible shelter problem in every climate; we have already invented and tested every necessary technique and technical device, and have access to all the biological material that we could ever use The tragic reality is that very few sustainable systems are designed or applied by those who hold power, and the reason for this is obvious and simple: We should cease to look to power structures, hierarchical systems, or governments to help us, and devise ways to help ourselves.

Contrast with Asexual Reproduction. Shale deposits sometimes contain or are found near coal or oil. Topsoil accumulated for centuries or eons can erode away in minutes unless anchored with vegetation and properly drained. Shelterbelts prevent moisture loss and erosion. Usually corn, but also grass, sorghum, legumes, and sunflowers, among others.

Found in glass, quartz, opals. A major problem of many dams and deep water ports. Common after a lot of rain, especially in heavily paved areas.

Distortion increases near the poles and away from the center bulge. A cubic yard of soil will cover square feet of ground to a depth of 1 inch. The major nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Bacteria and fungi produce humus. Half the volume of good soil is pore spaces. Actinomycete microbes help form humus; they are the most numerous organisms after bacteria. Soil texture means the relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay. Replacement of an inch of topsoil takes years.

They carry a negative electrical charge, have much to do with the soil's chemistry, and serve as the primary sites for cation exchange and the capture and transport of nutrients.

Soft Technology Appropriate Technology: June 21 or 22, when it stands the farthest north, and December 21 or 22, its southernmost position in the northern hemisphere; dates for the southern hemisphere are the reverse. The panda is a specialist who harvests the bamboo that makes up most of its diet. This usually happens through either geographical separation over long periods of time, or through reinforcement , in which subtle differences in characteristics like calls or wing markings are more favored in mates.

When Agrodiaetus butterflies live together, for example, the males tend to develop markings that distinguish them by species. Females of the same species prefer them. This provides the kind of breeding barrier an ocean or mountain range might.

An example would be the belief that animals have fewer rights than humans because of lesser intelligence.

Carpal tunnel syndrome