FOLIC ACID

For Consumers

Koi Pond Additives
Tristan Rogers back on set GH: If surgery is required, physicians should inquire if the patient has received systemic corticosteroid therapy, such as hydrocortisone, within the last 12 months and discuss the disease for which they were being treated. Taking folic acid pills along with methotrexate might decrease the effectiveness of methotrexate MTX, Rheumatrex. Direct IV injection administration: In regard to carbohydrate oxidation during exercise, it appears that rats subject to intermittent physical exercise which utilizes glycogen have decreased lactate production during said exercise, suggesting a preservation of glycogen usage. Lorenzo puts the wheels in motion to take over Sonny's territory. Diarrhea and nausea can occur when too much creatine is supplemented at once, in which case doses should be spread out over the day and taken with meals.

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Genotropin

Do not throw needles, syringes, or sharps containers in the household trash without first checking your state and local laws. Do not recycle the sharps container. Always keep your sharps container in a safe place and out of the reach of children.

The small amount of air in the syringe does not affect your injection. What should I do if I have problems turning the plunger rod Step 6? The problem could be because the needle has been inserted at an angle onto the rubber stopper. Carefully replace the outer needle cover on the needle and unscrew counterclockwise to remove the needle. What should I do if I have problems pushing the plunger when making the injection Step 11? What should I do if the needle is damaged or bent?

How do I care for my Needle Guard? Clean the Needle Guard by wiping with a damp cloth or alcohol swab. If there is anything you do not understand or cannot do, call the Pfizer Bridge Programs toll-free number at If you have any questions about your dose or your treatment with Genotropin, call your Healthcare provider.

Your pen should not be used near electrical or electronic equipment, including mobile phones. If your pen has been damaged, it should not be used and should be disposed of as instructed by your Healthcare provider. Push and screw the needle onto the metal front part See Figure D. Open the cartridge pack and take out a cartridge.

Check that the colour on the cartridge matches the colour around the plastic body window See Figure E. Hold the metal front part upright, and insert the cartridge—metal cap first—as shown See Figure F. Push the cartridge firmly into place.

This will draw back the plunger rod See Figure H. Do not proceed if the plunger rod is visible, as the medication will not be properly mixed See Figure I. While holding your pen upright , gently screw the metal front part and the plastic body back together. This mixes the liquid and the powder See Figure J. Examine the Solution Gently tip the pen from side to side to help dissolve the powder completely See Figure K. Check that the solution is clear in the cartridge window See Figure L.

Release Trapped Air Remove both the outer needle cover and inner needle cap. Dispose of the inner needle cap.

Be careful not to touch the exposed needle. Remove any trapped air from the solution as follows: Gently tap the metal front part with your finger to move any air bubbles to the top. You will see a drop of liquid appear at the needle tip.

Any trapped air has now been released See Figure N. Then turn the injection button in the direction of the arrow until it clicks once and the display shows '0.

Repeat steps b and c. Grip the sides of the needle guard. Push it over the needle until it snaps in place See Figure O. Never push the needle guard on the end. Dial Your Prescribed Dose Press the red release button to reset your pen. The button will pop-up and the dose display window will read '0.

Turn the injection button in the direction of the arrow until your prescribed dose is displayed See Figure P. If you turn the button too far, turn it back the other way until your correct dose is displayed. Firmly pinch a fold of skin at the injection area.

Push the injection button until it clicks. Wait at least 5 seconds, and then withdraw the needle from the skin. This makes sure the entire dose has been injected See Figure Q. Be careful not to push on the end See Figure R. Remove the needle as instructed by your Healthcare provider, and discard it in a proper disposal container.

Never reuse a needle. Push on the front cap, and put your pen back in its protective case. Remove the front cap See Figure S. Make sure there is enough growth hormone in the cartridge for your dose. Check the position of the plunger against the indicative scale in the cartridge window See Figure T. Peel off the foil from a needle. Push and screw the needle onto the metal front part of your pen. Remove the outer needle cover and inner needle cap See Figure U. Follow the instructions above, starting with Step 8: Fit the needle guard.

This will draw back the plunger rod. Unscrew the metal front part and remove the empty cartridge See Figure X.

Discard the empty cartridge as instructed by your Healthcare provider. To insert a new cartridge and prepare your pen for reuse, follow the instructions starting with Step 1. To remove the clip-on panel from your pen, insert the lip of the front cap into the groove under the front end of the panel, and pry the panel off.

The new panel simply clicks into place. A small hole near the dose display enables you to attach decorations or charms. Questions and Answers Question Answer How long is the use period of my pen? The pen has a use period of 2 year starting from the first use by the patient.

How can I tell how much Genotropin is left in my pen? The indicative scale along the side of the cartridge window is a guide. The number that aligns with the front edge of the rubber stopper shows you how many milligrams are left in the cartridge. If your cartridge is nearly empty you can also dial the injection button until it can't go any further; the dose display will then show the maximum dose that can be delivered.

When the cartridge is empty, the injection button will not turn any further. If the display doesn't work, can my pen still be used? Yes, but it is not recommended. Your pen can still be used while waiting for a new one. Contact your Healthcare provider. What happens if I dial the injection button beyond the maximum dose '4. Some liquid may appear from the needle tip, and the numbers may disappear from the dose display.

This is normal and will not affect your injection. To correct this, turn the injection button in the direction of the arrow until numbers reappear on the dose display. Then dial back to your correct dose. Steady The selected dose size. The number indicates the dose size in mg that your pen will deliver if the injection button is fully pressed in.

Steady A dose is not set. The injection button has been turned too far in the opposite direction to the arrow on the injection button while setting the dose. Flashing The injection button is rotated too fast or too slow. Point the pen away from your face, press the injection button, press the red release button and continue preparing your dose.

Flashing 1 month before the 2nd year use elapse. The dose can be set and read from the display. Steady Pen has reached the end of its use period of 2 years. The display will continue to show until the battery is completely empty. This does not indicate a defect of your pen. Your pen can still be used correctly, but the dose size will not be displayed. Flashing Battery charge is low and will be empty in one month's time. Steady Battery power low. The dose cannot be displayed.

Steady Blank screen To save the battery's energy, the dose display is activated for two minutes and then automatically disappears. Although the display is no longer visible, the dose remains available for delivery.

Do not shake your pen, as this might stop the growth hormone working. Fit the Needle Guard Optional The needle guard is intended to hide the needle before, during and after injection and to reduce needle injury. Be careful not to push on the end. Your Next Injection If you already have a cartridge in your pen, prepare the pen and give the injection as follows: Push and screw the needle onto the metal front part of the pen. Turn the injection button in the opposite direction to the arrow on the injection button as far as it will go See Figure W.

To remove the clip-on panel from the pen, insert the lip of the front cap into the groove under the front end of the panel, and pry the panel off. What happens if I dial the injection button beyond the maximum dose '2. Point your pen away from your face, press the injection button, press the red release button and continue preparing your dose.

This does not indicate a defect of the pen. Afterwards the dose can be set and your pen can be used correctly. Screw the plunger rod back into the holder. When the two halves are completely screwed together, the growth hormone and the diluent are automatically mixed.

Remove the protective cap from the pressure-release needle. Do not touch the exposed needle. This will release the excess pressure in the cartridge. Be sure the cartridge is vertical when pierced, to avoid spilling the growth hormone. This step is only performed the first time you use a new cartridge. See Figure C Remove the pressure-release needle from the cartridge and discard the needle in a proper disposal container. This must be done each time before the solution is taken from the cartridge.

Take out an insulin syringe and remove its needle guard. Insert the needle of the syringe through the rubber tip of the cartridge contained in the Genotropin MIXER, making sure that the needle tip always stays below the fluid level. This will minimize air from entering your syringe. Holding the side of the syringe body and the end of the syringe plunger rod, pull the plunger of the syringe back slowly to draw out your prescribed dose of growth hormone.

Still holding the Genotropin MIXER and syringe with its needle pointing upwards , gently tap the side of the syringe to move any air bubbles to the top of the syringe. Then push the syringe's plunger gently to force the air bubbles out of the syringe. It is now ready for your injection. See Figure D Disinfect the area to be injected as directed by your healthcare provider. Pinch the skin firmly between your thumb and forefinger. Gently and smoothly inject the growth hormone until the syringe is empty.

Withdraw the needle quickly, by pulling it straight out, and apply pressure over the injection site with a dry gauze pad. Discard the needle in a proper disposal container.

The site of the injection should be changed each day. Print this page Add to My Med List. Genotropin Rating No reviews - Add your review.

Subscribe to free Drugs. FDA alerts for all medications. Is it a problem if I see air bubbles in the syringe? Please read these instructions completely before using the Genotropin PEN Pull off the front cap See Figure B. Unscrew the metal front part from the plastic body See Figure C. Peel off the foil from the needle. Insert the Two-Chamber Cartridge of Genotropin.

Use only the 12mg cartridge. Press the red release button; the injection button will pop-up See Figure G. Turn the injection button as far as it will go in the opposite way to the arrows on the injection button.

Check that the plunger rod is not visible through the window. Make sure that a needle is attached to the metal front part. Remove both the outer needle cover and inner needle cap. Choose and prepare an appropriate injection area, as directed by your Healthcare provider. Pull off the needle guard, gripping the sides. If you already have a cartridge in your pen, prepare the pen and give the injection as follows: Press the red release button to reset your pen See Figure V.

Your pen is supplied with two colored clip-on panels, enabling you to customize the look of your pen. The selected dose size. A dose is not set. The injection button is rotated too fast or too slow. Pen has reached the end of its use period of 2 years. Comes in calcium salt; fairly insoluble in water and chloroform and fairly soluble in alcohol; sensitive to degradation by air. Comes in sodium salt and free acid forms; fairly insoluble in water but soluble in ethanol; sensitive to degradation by air.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis ; postoperative ocular swelling; herpetic stromal keratitis, excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy; ocular gingivitis. Comes in lysine salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, but soluble in ethanol, acetone , methanol , dichloromethane and chloroform. Degrades in the presence of air. Pain; fever; inflammatory illness; rheumatoid arthritis ; osteoarthritis ; heavy menstrual bleeding; patent ductus arteriosus.

Comes in free acid and sodium salt forms; practically insoluble in water and most solvents; sensitive to degradation by light. Rheumatoid arthritis ; osteoarthritis ; gout ; ankylosing spondylitis ; period pain; patent ductus arteriosus. Comes in free acid, lysine salt, sodium salt and hydrochloride salt forms; the dex-enantiomer comes in trometamol salt form. Practically insoluble in water; freely soluble in most other solvents. PO, rectal, topical, transdermal, intravenous, intramuscular.

Rheumatoid arthritis , osteoarthritis and superficial sporting injuries topical use. Comes in the trometamol salt form; highly soluble in water. Degrades in the presence of light. Mild-moderate postoperative pain; acute migraine; inflammation of the eye due to cataract surgery or allergic seasonal conjunctivitis ; prevention of acute pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema. Comes in free acid and sodium salt form, sodium salt is the form used in human medicine; practically insoluble in water free acid and freely soluble in water sodium salt ; sensitive to degradation by air and light.

Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; mild-moderate pain; dysmenorrhoea; menorrhagia. Comes in free acid form; practically insoluble in water, fairly insoluble in organic solvents; degrades on contact with air and light.

Inflammatory pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. Comes in free acid form; practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in acetone; degrades on contact with air and light. Comes in free acid and sodium form; practically insoluble in water in free form, freely soluble in water sodium salt , fairly soluble in most organic solvents.

Degrades on contact with air and light. Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; juvenile idiopathic arthritis ; inflammatory pain; heavy menstrual bleeding. Comes in free acid form, glycinamide and ethyl ester form; practically insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, acetone and methanol. Comes in potassium and free acid forms; degrades upon contact with light. Systemic now seldom used due to adverse effects: For systemic use haematological side effects such as aplastic anaemia; agranulocytosis; leucopenia; neutropenia; etc.

Comes in free form; practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in most organic solvents; degrades upon contact with light and air.

Comes in free acid and betadex salt forms; practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol; degrades on contact with air and light.

Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and sports injuries topical use. Comes in free acid and sodium salt forms; practically insoluble in water and hexane, very slightly soluble in most organic solvents. Degrades upon contact with light. Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; gout; ankylosing spondylitis; inflammatory pain. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water, fairly insoluble in organic solvents; degrades upon contact with light. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water but freely soluble in most organic solvents; propionic acid derivative; degrades upon contact with light.

Ankylosing spondylitis; osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; fibrosis; capsulitis; soft-tissue disorders. Comes as free acid; practically insoluble in water; degrades upon contact with light; anthranilic acid. Comes in sodium salt form; freely soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol, freely soluble in methanol. Comes in free form; practically insoluble in water, fairly soluble in organic solvents. Degrades on contact with light and moisture. Rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; pain due to dysmenorrhoea or injury.

More prone to causing thrombotic events than most of them, however, except diclofenac. Comes in free form; practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in acetone and dehydrated alcohol. Acute pain; dysmenorrhoea; sprains topical ; tendinitis. Pain from dysmenorrhoea ; rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis. As above and also potentially fatal skin reactions e.

Comes in free and hydrochloride salt forms; fairly insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, methanol and acetone; degrades upon contact with light. Partial agonist at the mu opioid receptor; agonist at delta opioid receptor; antagonist at kappa opioid receptor. Methoxy analogue of morphine.

Metabolised to morphine, which activates the opioid receptors. Mild-moderate pain, often in combination with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; freely soluble in water, soluble in alcohol; degrades upon contact with light. Diacetyl derivative of morphine. Rapidly hydrolysed to 6-acetylmorphine and then to morphine after crossing the blood-brain barrier which in turn activates the opioid receptors in the CNS.

Extensively metabolised to morphine with 6-acetylmorphine as a possible intermediate. Mostly excreted in urine. Severe pain including labour pain ; cough due to terminal lung cancer; angina; left ventricular failure. Higher potential for abuse compared to other opioids due to its rapid penetration of the blood-brain barrier.

Comes in freebase, hydrochloride, phosphate, polistirex, thiocyanate, tartrate, bitartrate and hydrogen tartrate salt forms; freely soluble in water, practically insoluble in organic solvents hydrogen tartrate salt ; degrades upon contact with air and light.

Comes in freebase, hydrochloride, camphorate and camsilate salt forms; soluble in water and alcohol; degrades upon contact with light. Comes in freebase form, hydrochloride salt, sulfate salt and tartrate salt forms; soluble in water; degrades in the presence of light. Di nicotinic acid ester derivative of morphine. Comes in freebase, hydrochloride and terephthalate salt forms; freely soluble in water and practically insoluble in organic solvents; degrades upon contact with air.

As above, but with a higher propensity for causing hallucinations and delusions. Respiratory depression is subject to ceiling effect. Comes in free, hydrochloride and lactate salt forms; fairly insoluble in water 1: Comes in free, hydrochloride and phosphate forms; fairly insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol, ether and chloroform; degrades upon contact with air and light.

Comes in hydrochloride salt form; freely soluble in water, soluble in ethanol and fairly insoluble in dichloromethane. Comes in hydrochloride form; very soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ether, soluble in ethanol; degrades upon contact with air and light. As per other opioids; and seizures, anxiety, mood changes and serotonin syndrome. Comes in free form, hydrochloride and napsilate salt forms; very soluble in water HCl , practically insoluble in water napsilate ; degrades upon contact with light and air.

Comes in hydrochloride salt form; practically insoluble in water and ether, soluble in acetone and ethanol. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; soluble in water and alcohol; degrades upon contact with light. Moderate-severe pain; perioperative analgesia; renal colic. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; soluble in water, ethanol and dichloromethane; degrades upon contact with light.

As per other opioids but with less respiratory depression and constipation. Serotonin syndrome possible if used in conjunction with other serotonergics. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; freely soluble in ethanol, water, methanol; degrades upon contact with air and light. Comes in free form and in hydrochloride and embonate salt forms; practically insoluble in water embonate salt , freely soluble in water HCl ; degrades upon contact with light.

Neuropathic pain; nocturnal enuresis; major depression; migraine prophylaxis; urinary urge incontinence. Sedation, anticholinergic effects, weight gain, orthostatic hypotension, sinus tachycardia, sexual dysfunction, tremor, dizziness, sweating, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, confusion.

Dizziness, euphoria, paranoia, somnolence, abnormal thinking, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, depression, hallucinations, hypotension, special difficulties, emotional lability, tremors, flushing, etc. Comes in hydrochloride salt form; slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in methanol; degrades upon contact with light. Anticholinergic effects, GI effects, yawning, sweating, dizziness, weakness, sexual dysfunction, somnolence, insomnia, headache, tremor, decreased appetite. Comes as maleate salt.

Chemically related to retigabine. Potassium channel Kv7 opener. Pain; fibromyalgia ; Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease. Drowsiness, dizziness, heartburn, dry mouth, fatigue and nausea. What was NOT desired by the majority of my clients were the high tech methods that are more time consuming and more expensive if only for the cost of your time in maintaining these types of tanks. However, I do provide information as well as outside resources for these methods, too, if you are interested in them.

If I can't help you, I at least want you to be able to help yourself. This information is NOT intended to contradict any of the high tech planted aquarium methods many are referenced here too. As well, I come at planted aquariums from the prospective that it is still about an aquarium with fish with nice plant growth, not an aquarium that is an aquatic garden with explosive plant growth with a few token fish that have no spaces where they would naturally swim in.

What I am not is a planted aquarium "guru". I have had many clients as well as readers who have followed my methods over the years with beautiful planted fish aquariums with good plant growth albeit maybe not explosive growth. Much of what is contained in this article is based on my observations and methods I used as well as learning from others in forums, reading, etc.

I think you as a reader will find it useful. Please follow links to outside reference for further explanations of more in depth information such as advanced CO2 systems, lighting, algae, etc. Also, we provide links to excellent online places to purchase plants. These are not affiliated with us in any way.

We only provide these resources as a service to our readers and because we believe these businesses are worth visiting. Many will ask, "What is the best aquarium filter? However, as you read further in this article, you will see that some filters can and will effect chemistry, water parameters, use of fertilizers, etc.

So, what you want is a filter that will keep ammonia and nitrites at absolute 0 while preserving some bio-available minerals, nitrates and CO2. This filtration capacity must occur even when organic wastes may suddenly spike such as due to plant deaths, fish deaths, over feeding, temporary blackouts, etc.

As per the "Walstad Method" basically, a twist on what was known by old timers as the "German Method" , this method depends upon the plants along with fish wastes to do most of the work for maintaining the aquarium chemistry and water quality as far as the Nitrogen Cycle ONLY while the aquarium keeper provides circulation, some ferts and mineral cations that are not supplied or kept up with adequately by fish food, and cleanings ONLY when necessary.

My personal experience and knowledge of aquarium chemistry suggests that at least a simple sponge or more advanced fluid sand bed filter should be used for best results if you are using the "Walstad Method".

If you have more fish, for example, you will need more plants to balance them out. In a heavily planted aquarium with a low bio-load , basic water circulation may be all you need if you are following this method. Please see further in this article as per the "Walstad Method" and Aquarium Chemistry as it pertains to: Basic planted aquarium water parameters. Based on my head-to-head controlled tests in the s, I found that quality sponge filters and fluidized sand bed filters met the requirements for aerobic bio-filtration that best fit a planted aquarium environment.

While other filters may work fine for those of you questioning this who have other filters , the facts are that other filters will strip more CO2 from the water and will not provide the same levels of high aerobic bio filtration, nor respond to sudden ammonia spikes the way these two types of filters can.

This places them ahead of the others in the planted aquarium. It does not mean you can't use other filters, however. It just means our experiences and data show they have distinct advantages. It is also important to compare apples to apples if you are considering a sponge filter over, say, a canister filter. For instance, a low quality sponge material like Lees sponge filter is not going to come close to a SunSun filter for a 60 gallon aquarium, for example.

However, a high volume ATI Lustar Hydro Sponge 5 will compare reasonably well without some of the draw backs the Hydro Pond 2 or a stacked Hydro Sponge 5 will actually out perform the aforementioned canister filters.

These kind of comparisons can be also made to many "hang-on-back" HOB filters as well. An internal filter or two , such as the SunSun HJ can be added to compliment or run your fluidized filter or sponge filter.

The sponges in most internal filters, such as the HJ, can be removed for adding carbon, Purigen , etc. Obviously, I am biased toward sponge and fluidized filters. However this does not mean you cannot keep a very successful planted tank without these filters.

Nothing could be further from the truth, and this should not be assumed from this article! What I am saying is to consider these two filters for their simplicity, effect on water parameters, and the fact that many professionals and experienced hobbyists use these with top-notch results. I am emphasizing them because, especially in the case of sponge filters, many aquarists overlook them and focus on the name brand and more heavily advertised canister and hang-on-back filters.

The sponge filter is definitely worth considering if you have shrimp in your aquarium as many planted aquarium keepers often do. Unlike most all other filters, the sponge filter cannot "suck up" juvenile shrimp. If a sponge filter is used with shrimp present, I suggest using the air-powered method, not a powerhead.

It is possible for the power head to accidentally become disconnected and then be a danger to the shrimp an air pump also provides a more gentle vertical current that is better and safer for shrimp. Water Circulation is closely related to the filtration of your planted aquarium.

By default, most filtration also provides circulation. However, some filters provide more than others. Conversely, the circulation of many not be fully adequate with some filters such as a fluidized sand filter. Consider, too, that most of the natural environments we are duplicating with our planted aquariums which often include fish such as Discus or Cardinal Tetras do not have constant heavy circulation.

I have had better experience with these aquariums by providing many "dead" spots with little or even no water current. A relatively new water pump type is the propeller type , which is my choice for planted aquariums especially with Ram cichlids, Discus, and similar South American fish or high tech planted aquarium where higher flow is desired.

Like the name says, a propeller pump utilizes a propeller blades like you might find on a boat motor to push water. This is as opposed to an impeller that tends to suck water through the device to be expelled out the end. While the impeller is inside a casing, the propeller has an open design. This design provides a much softer widespread flow versus the more common high focused current of popular power heads. Additionally, this design will not drive out CO2 as much as other pumps if positioned lower in the water.

Obviously, the more traditional power heads can be optimized as well, just not as readily in my opinion. As a side note, both propeller pumps and traditional power head pumps MAY not be a good choice for planted tanks with shrimp, especially since juvenile shrimp can get sucked into the intake screens.

The beginning aquarist is likely to think that if there's enough light to see then it's enough for plants to grow. However, that's not true. If you want to grow healthy plants, and not just algae, you need enough light for them to use for photosynthesis and create energy. It used to be that people advised watts per gallon as a VERY basic principle. But, due to modern lighting technology this is now considered an outdated notion with PAR now more the norm. Besides that, "useful light energy" aka PUR is something that is often overlooked and is an area where the new generations of LED lights that emit "natural daylight" spectrums cannot be beat.

Lumen focus and restrike is an area in which the LED and metal halides reign supreme with almost all light energy directed where the light needs to be: The reason this 'watts per gallon' formula can be poor other than comparing LEDs within a specific brand is the efficiencies of so many lights can vary greatly due to design, poor circuitry, low quality emitters, fans, and much more. Take the input wattage and divide it by the PAR reading. You will find efficiencies as high as. Most of the better LEDs are under.

Besides watts per gallon these other factors are also quite important: Lux - I generally only consider this parameter in deeper planted freshwater aquarium to determine if I am getting the proper light where it needs to be. Here are some considerations as per PAR poor spectrums as per PUR would require this to be much higher, such as warm white: Another determining factor is the type of plants you will be keeping.

Examples include Java Fern for low light and Wendtii for high light. These two terms are NOT the same! A Wendtii requires high light regardless of of whether you use a high tech method that involves pressurized CO2, Fert drips or not!!

Based on my many years of experience and s of aquarium set up and kept for clients, you can have an aquarium that produces enough CO2 via "low tech" methods such as employing filters that do not wear off CO2 such as the Fluidized Sand Bed along with use of foods and simple supplements that easily can be qualified as low tech, HOWEVER this still does not mean you can get by with a 15 watt T8 cool white fluorescent lamp on a 20 gallon aquarium for a high light plants. A key point is that light is the controlling factor in planted aquariums.

The more light, the more CO2 and Ferts that are required. This said this correlation does work the somewhat the other way based on my experience and research. For MUCH more expanded information about lighting including more in-depth explanations of the above subjects , please read this article: Pictured to the left and below in a photo-shop example of placement. Honestly, for any aquarium plant keeper who is remotely handy in DIY projects, the SHO lamps are hard to beat , especially for tanks over 50 gallons.

Many in the green house industry have already discovered this lamp for its plant growing capabilities, which for the price there is simply no equal for planted aquariums! Without question, this is the lamp that could or should be used by any serious planted freshwater aquarium keeper.

For example in a foot long gallon aquarium, four 85 Watt K SHO staggered in four separate incandescent single sockets will provide ample light in the correct PAR for healthy plant growth. The advantage of this light system, besides high lumen and PAR light output, is the low set up cost compared to most other lighting systems. The negative is that these lights are not as consumer ready for aquarium applications and require some DIY abilities to install either incandescent sockets or a pendant fixture.

Better yet is mounting the lamps inside a fixture with a reflector. Please click on the picture above to enlarge for a better view of the diagram displaying approximate SHO lamp placement in a planted freshwater aquarium. This depiction shows four lights, which is suggested for aquariums over five feet in length. Although, for an aquarium 4 feet or less in length, two lights is generally adequate and only one light is needed for tanks that are 2 feet or less in length.

While less known, the T-2 lamps and fixtures are also great for plants. For example two 13 Watt K T2s are excellent for a 20 gallon with plants that require high light. Multiple T2s can be interconnected for larger aquariums so as to require just one outlet. For instance, you could have four 13 Watt K T2s for a 60 gallon with plants requiring medium light.

Unfortunately the rush to LEDs along with a turn down in the professional aquarium keeping hobby toward discounters has all but killed the T2 light. As you can see the plant growth and light output are excellent.

Click to enlarge Product References: Although initial cost is high but much lower than they were a year prior to this update , the 50, hour lifespan and lowest energy usage pays for these lights in the long term. Combine that with the highest lumens per watt, PWM driver technology AquaRay only , the lowest wasted light energy and the highest focused lumens and you have a real top-notch planted aquarium light that requires only.

The picture to the left shows: Please click to enlarge for a better view. Other "high end" LED options include: The Colour Plus brings out the color of fish and plants better than most other LED lights available, without as much potential of unwanted algae growth due to the over use of blue emitters by some competing LED Lights. The Colour Plus can be augmented with the GroBeam models for high light aquariums. In either case, this is a great combination that will really bring out the colors of your fish while providing ample light for hungry plants!

Based on over 34 years of professional use too! A must read for anyone serious about the correct use of an UV sterilizer in their aquarium, especially with all the cheap, gimmicky UVs flooding the market that do little more than simple clarification! For the most current technology in Planted Freshwater Lighting: Hydrosponge Pro filter for high flow applications. Eheim Everyday Automatic Feeder Electronically controlled programmable fish feeder allows up to 8 daily feeding times.

Gasses such as oxygen and CO2 are added and subtracted from the aquarium via surface agitation. Generally speaking it is oxygen that is added and CO2 that is subtracted. In nature, CO2 is organically added via fish respiration or other biological activity along with decomposition and chemical reactions such as alkaline buffers upon acids in the water. Often many "hands-on" advanced aquarium keepers will utilize the most advanced pressurized CO2 system as well as complicated fertilizer delivery.

While this might be the way to go for certain high end hobbyists, from my experience as well as other experienced pros the expense of time and money these methods require are not always justified if all you desire is a nice but basic planted aquarium. In fact, as a generalization, just utilizing good lighting, filtration, and basic fertilizers, as well as simple, natural CO2 generation methods e.

Albeit not to the level of advanced methods think Walstad Method or German method! This of course is not to knock advanced methods for those who want optimal plant growth. Agrarium Optimum Carbon Replacement. This is where a popular aquarium lighting expert who gave a podcast interview at scapefu. What she and others often miss is "bio-available" CO2, and this can be provided along with good optimal lighting for high light plant growth. This is again not to say that adding CO2, especially via advanced CO2 systems is "bad", far from it, as this is how you are ONLY going to achieve "crazy" plant growth and it often makes even simple growth easier.

But just do not let others convince you to not try some high light plants if you are not planning to use injected CO2 So please read on. Usually, nothing more need be added in a healthy aquarium eco-system for these plant types. To be clear, you can definitely get higher growth in a "high tech" aquarium, and there are certainly some hobbyists who enjoy tinkering with their system.

But, if you are a beginner and wishing to keep it simple, then the low tech approach is for you. This is probably the most simple way, in my experience. When Glutaraldehyde is compared to a professional CO2 injection system, there is little contest as per the professional pressurized CO2 system even the more basic aerosol versions will outperform Glutaraldehyde. You could also consider setting up a drip system to slowly add Glutaraldehyde over time instead of by the capful.

For more information about Flourish Excel from a Seachem question and answer fact sheet, please follow this link: Another way to utilize NilocG Enhance Seachem Flourish Excel for bioavailable carbon CO2 in a better, staggered way, rather than all at once, is a calibrated drip system. In this experiment I was able to get 20 drops per minute. So 4 minutes would equal 1 tsp. There are 6 tsp in one fluid ounce. So at this rate you will go through a ounce in 24 minutes. Add the correct dosage for your aquarium size then add the water RO or DI water is best to mix with Flourish.

Then, depending upon how long you would like to stagger the drip would determine the amount of water. For this example I would suggest 20 oz. With larger containers, longer dosing times can be achieved. However, even though Flourish Excel or Enhance can remain active for 24 hours, from my experience I would suggest 8 hours for best results keeping in mind that CO2 is not utilized by plants after dark as they use oxygen instead during non-photosynthetic periods.

CO2 is naturally provided by fish and other aquatic inhabitants through respiration. Some information suggests this may be a majors source in some rivers. The first two "natural sources are easily duplicated in our aquariums while the third is not so easy, which is why we often have to inject CO2 or at least use products such as AAP Enhance.

However, nitrifying bacteria can use carbon dioxide CO2 for their source of carbon thus, depleting CO2 in the aquarium. You can sometimes tell if aquarium plants are photosynthesizing by observing the plants.

When small bubbles form on the leaves of plants it is a sign that photosynthesis is occurring. This is commonly referred to as pearling. As for CO2 generators, there are many ways of going about this: Better, though, is to utilize the sponge pre-filter method shown in the next section which works well with the Fizz Tabs. This is especially true if the DIY diffuser noted in the next section is employed with the Jungle Fizz or even a homemade yeast method.

As well, these steps tend to clog with algae and even small snails in some instances. In my opinion this is a more gimmicky device the ladder, that is and is not as reliable in CO2 delivery. That should not be construed to mean that this CO2 system does not work. It simply is not any better than the previously described methods.

This method of diffusion can be used with the Jungle Fizz tabs too. Further Information about the Gelatin Method. Please see this pdf download: This system has a pressure regulator, bubble counter, and top notch diffuser as with many pro systems, but is much simpler.

Probably the best choice for all but the most die-hard of advanced planted aquarium enthusiasts. I would go with an advanced CO2 reactor for freshwater aquarium plants that utilizes pressurized CO2, CO2 reactors, diffusers, pumps with a venturi, and filters such as a canister filter to add the CO2 into the aquarium. Please click on the picture to the right for a better view of such a system.

The CO2 system to the left is a top of the line professional system for advanced planted freshwater aquarium keepers. This product is sold by a company not affiliated with this website, however we recommend this type of CO2 system for those who desire a more "high tech" plant keeping CO2 System that is not sold by this website or those affiliated with us.

There are many ways to diffuse CO2 into your aquarium from very basic methods that require the CO2 to have some air pressure such as by ceramic air stones or limewood air stones. This sponge pre-filter method was introduced to me by an aquarium plant enthusiast friend in , but I forgot about it until September of after a similar method reminded me of it and I decided I would put one together myself. This method utilizes a Filter Max 2 Pre-Filter with a small hole drilled to add a Lee's air line control valve, then an airline check valve as close to the airline control valve as possible.

From the check valve, the airline goes to the source of the CO2, whether a Jungle Fizz Tablet Bottle which is what I used to give it a try , yeast CO2 generator, gelatin, or, in my friend's, case a fully pressurized CO2 tank with a regulator. You then connect a relatively slow pump such as the Rio gph to what would normally be the pump pick-up, but in this case, the flow is directed downward so as to trap the CO2.

While, as of this article update, I have not used this method enough to make a judgment, my friend has and has noted marked increases in his CO2 using the same generator method, with the only difference being this DIY diffuser. Plant nutrients include nitrogen and phosphorous from fish food and waste and potassium that we add through supplements of nutrients or "ferts" as they are referred to by many hobbyists. Some trace elements, including calcium, magnesium, and iron are also essential.

In the case of iron, too much in the water column can and often will cause algae problems I prefer iron to be more available in the substrate. Nutrients ferts can be added to the substrate, water, or both.

This misconception often leads to depletion of essential KH buffers and equally if not more important positive mineral ions. This BTW does not mean one cannot maintain a vibrant planted tank as per this method, just that it is quite easy to outstrip natural bio available nutrients in a closed system, hence my comments.

Aiming for artificially low GH levels in a misguided attempt to replicate Amazon or similar bio-topes has been proven to be folly. The importance of maintaining healthy positive calcium levels. From this cited article: While I am certainly not against a "natural" environment for Amazon River or similar type fish, just understand the importance of proper levels of mineral ions. No one should ignore the FACT that these fish still require mineral cations for proper health and Redox balance!

Correct levels of mineral cations have been proven important in many places throughout my articles. Unlike in an open system that have mountains and rivers replenishing these minerals, these mineral cations are often driven out with many methods of establishing a Biotope aquarium. The aquarium keeper is unlikely to know how important these proper trace minerals are for long term health of the fish. Now, with other methods of adding nutrients or "ferts", such as the "The Estimative Index of Dosing" popularized by Tom Barr , the ferts, which are added, with the large water changes performed, generally should take of these minerals and it is a non-issue water changes are part of the course of this method, in part to control temporary and artificially high nitrates.

The Estimative Index of Dosing, or No Need for Test Kits If you are into the high end world of explosive plant growth where the aquarium is more about the plants than the fish, the above method might be for you, so please read! Products designed for persons who want to have a more advanced planted aquarium without the hassles need for a degree in science to do so. Consider these products too: This is an often misunderstood aspect of aquarium plant keeping.

Not only do plants need many of the minerals found in GH, but, just as important, potentially dangerous upward pH swings can occur if your GH is much below 50 ppm during peak plant photosynthesis. For example, I observed a pH of 6. Please note, an acid buffer is often not necessary in planted aquariums since natural acid buffers may already be present.

KH Buffers - an explanation of common buffers including dosing chart very important! Anything higher can feed algae more than plants. My experience as well as research is that it is very rare for an average healthy planted aquarium with a normal bio load especially using the Walstad or German Method should need to have phosphates added to the aquarium.

However when going with high tech, high light, "crazy" plant growth methods such as similarly advocated in "The Estimative Index of Dosing Method". Supplied by Flourite Substrate or similar, plant tablets such as Jungle, or best supplied by specific iron supplements such as Seachem Flourish Iron.

Symptoms of iron deficiency in plants can be chlorosis yellowing of the tissue between veins and short and slender stems most often in new growth. It is also noteworthy that in acidic environments phosphate ions react with Iron and make iron less soluble and thus less available.

Therefore if one require more iron, slightly alkaline values are more desirable. Soil pH and the Availability of Plant Nutrients. An old trick is to bury a nail in the substrate near the plant roots whereby the rusting nail will provide the necessary iron. I have seen this work well and despite some anecdotal answer at "Yahoo Answers", there is no scientific evidence that rust in small quantities such as a nail would provide will harm fish it anything it will improve Redox balance with mineral Cations!!

This said, I think newer methods such as balanced supplements are the way to go for added iron.

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