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We hope you enjoy these and find them useful to you and your students. The fifth revolution is the current Information Revolution. It seems impossible to conceive of a creature that lacks subjective experience but nevertheless exhibits all the self-reporting behaviors of humans that help us to ascribe subjective experience to them. The appearances were suspiciously exclusive: How to Look After Aging Pets. Humans have no reason to think either exists.

What is insulin?

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We have developed societies and laws; we have created industry and trade, and we have learned so much about ourselves and our bodies that we no longer are at the total whim of our environment. However, knowing as we do that we are certainly not the only living creature on this earth, it begs the question why were we the only ones to do it? The answer is simple and yet, more intricate than anything we could ever create ourselves — our brains.

Every animal that you could think of — from birds, mammals, fish, amphibians and reptiles, has a brain. And while our brains are not the largest, it does separate us from them in its abilities. And while that alone is impressive, it does it without a conscious effort as an automatic function. The brain is constantly taking in a flood of information about the world around us by using our various senses seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. It is responsible for our physical movements, like walking, talking, sitting and standing.

And while the above is certainly very awe-inspiring in its own right, what really separates us from the animals is that our brains allow us to think, to dream, to reason and to experience emotions. However, what happens when something goes wrong? For almost as long as mankind has existed, a connection has been understood between who we are and what we can do; and our brains. Injury, mental illness, surgical complications, and various other ailments; viral and bacterial can all impact the brain.

Using this system, the body ensures that the blood glucose levels remain within set limits, which allows the body to function properly. If a person accidentally injects more insulin than required, e. This leads to abnormally low blood glucose levels called hypoglycaemia.

The body reacts to hypoglycaemia by releasing stored glucose from the liver in an attempt to bring the levels back to normal. Low glucose levels in the blood can make a person feel ill. The body mounts an initial 'fight back' response to hypoglycaemia through a specialised set of of nerves called the sympathetic nervous system. This causes palpitations, sweating, hunger, anxiety, tremor and pale complexion that usually warn the person about the low blood glucose level so this can be treated.

However, if the initial blood glucose level is too low or if it is not treated promptly and continues to drop, the brain will be affected too because it depends almost entirely on glucose as a source of energy to function properly. This can cause dizziness, confusion, fits and even coma in severe cases. Some drugs used for people with type 2 diabetes , including sulphonylureas e. The body responds in the same way as if excess insulin has been given by injection.

Furthermore, there is a rare tumour called an insulinoma that occurs with an incidence of per million population. It is a tumour of the beta cells in the pancreas. Patients with this type of tumour present with symptoms of hypoglycaemia. People with diabetes have problems either making insulin, how that insulin works or both. The main two types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 diabetes, although there are other more uncommon types. People with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin at all.

This condition is caused when the beta cells that make insulin have been destroyed by antibodies these are usually substances released by the body to fight against infections , hence they are unable to produce insulin. With too little insulin, the body can no longer move glucose from the blood into the cells, causing high blood glucose levels.

If the glucose level is high enough, excess glucose spills into the urine. This drags extra water into the urine causing more frequent urination and thirst. This leads to dehydration , which can cause confusion. In addition, with too little insulin, the cells cannot take in glucose for energy and other sources of energy such as fat and muscle are needed to provide this energy. This makes the body tired and can cause weight loss.

If this continues, patients can become very ill. This is because the body attempts to make new energy from fat and causes acids to be produced as waste products. Ultimately, this can lead to coma and death if medical attention is not sought. People with type 1 diabetes will need to inject insulin in order to survive.

Type 2 diabetes can be caused by two main factors and its severity will depend on how advanced it is.

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