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Hospital care of the reptile patient. Severe lesions and death may be seen in infected snakes. The following are strategies to use to support your fasting patients: Soft drinks and caffeinated beverages are consumed to a lesser extent. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
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All our reptiles are captive bred. Call Terry or Steve to discuss our range of reptiles and Lizards we have for sale at Appleton Exotics the leading supplier of exotic pets in the North West. Appleton Exotics updated their cover photo. See More See Less. Garry Peers , Gill Mckenna Molyneux and 1 other like this. Jenny Lane Do you look after conures too? Garry Peers , Phil Mcloughlin and 11 others like this.
Phil Mcloughlin Speaking from experience and my tortoise in last year when I was on Holiday. The lads here will give your pet the best care.
Tracy Dainty , Chloe Erika Pownall and 19 others like this. Joyce Roberts wishing you all the best for Hughie Bloor Michael Ian Webb. Heidi Stanley Hi i bought a 3ft viv off you and a beardie in august with light fittings, hiw much is a new uv light please and also the red heat bulb? Sandra Clare Jenn Finch. Appleton Exotics added 6 new photos. Lee Gardiner , Gary Wood and 9 others like this. Home Testimonials Social Contact Us. Parrots at Appleton Exotics Parrots: North West Parrots All our birds have excellent clean, spacious conditions, they have constant attention from all the family, and therefore are extremely tame.
Tortoises in the North West Tortoises: Mites are distributed worldwide, and most reptilian species are affected. Reduced vitality and, in heavy infestations, death due to anemia may occur. Skin of affected reptiles appears coarse, and dysecdysis is frequent. The common snake mite Ophionyssus natricis and lizard mite Hirstiella spp are generally Aeromonas hydrophila , a variety of other bacteria, rickettsial agents, and probably viruses.
Mites are visible to the naked eye but are hard to see in small numbers. If mites are suspected, gently rubbing the reptile while it is standing over a piece of white paper will allow the mites to be seen after they have fallen off. Affected reptiles often spend an inordinate amount of time soaking to drown the mites.
Examination of the water dish can reveal the drowned remains of many mites. The gluttal folds, involutions around the face, and the space between the eye and its orbit are favored areas and should be inspected carefully.
There are many methods of treatment; however, a permethrin is specifically licensed for use in reptiles, and ivermectin is also frequently effective in squamates. Ticks are common on reptiles, and heavy infestations may result in anemia. Argasid ticks may cause paralysis, with muscle degeneration at the site of the bite. The transmission of green-lizard papilloma—associated virus, several hemogregarines, and the filarid worm Macdonaldius oscheri have been associated with ticks.
Ticks can transmit Ehrlichia ruminantium , the cause of heartwater, and consequently the importation of African reptiles has been controlled. Ticks can be removed manually or by using permethrin spray. Systemic antibiotics are often indicated because of systemic infections associated with multiple cutaneous bite wounds and, potentially, with transmission of pathogenic bacteria.
Leeches have been found on the legs, head, neck, and in the oral cavity of a variety of turtles and crocodilians. Chelonians frequently have cutaneous myiasis. Bot flies including Cuterebra sp create a cutaneous wound in which to lay their eggs, which hatch into bots that live in cyst-like structures until mature enough to leave the wound. Treatment consists of slightly expanding the natural opening and manually removing the bot with a forceps.
The wound is then flushed with povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, etc, and an antibiotic ointment is instilled. Systemic antibiotics are indicated in reptiles that have multiple lesions. Cutaneous myiasis also occurs secondary to existing wounds, and maggots must be manually removed and the underlying lesion treated with topical and systemic antibiotics as needed. During heavy fly season, turtles often are housed indoors or with screens over their enclosures to offer some protection.
Ectoparasite infestations are best prevented by thorough screening and quarantine of all new animals entering a collection. The stress of captivity coupled with a closed environment predisposes to heavy burdens of parasites with direct life cycles.
Every effort must be taken to rid reptiles of parasite burdens and the environment of intermediate hosts. Pathogenic trematodes infect the vascular system of turtles and infect the oral cavity, respiratory system, renal tubules, and ureters of snakes.
Chemotherapeutic agents have not effectively eliminated these parasites, although praziquantel has shown some promise. Tapeworms are found in all orders of reptiles but are rare in crocodilians. Reptiles may act as the definitive, paratenic, or intermediate hosts for a large number of species. Although most species of tapeworms are generally nonpathogenic in wild reptiles, weight loss and death have been reported.
The complex life cycle of cestodes and restricted geographic range of intermediate hosts limit the number of cases in captive reptiles. When present, proglottids may be found around the cloaca, or typical cestode ova may be isolated from feces. Treatment is with praziquantel , repeated in 2 wk. Plerocercoids of the genus Spirometra may be found as soft swellings in the subcutis.
These larval stages may be removed surgically. Nematodes are found in all orders of reptiles, and several genera are important. Strongyloides spp frequently inhabit the intestinal tract of reptiles; larvae are seen in the respiratory tract and respiratory exudate.
In snakes, the larvae have been seen within granulomas distributed throughout the body wall, suggesting that the larvae may be able to penetrate the skin. Overwhelming parasitism is common when poor hygiene results in highly contaminated environments. Rhabdias and related species have been found in the lungs of a variety of snakes; embryonated ova may be found in the oral cavity and in lung aspirates.
Embryonated ova and free larval forms may be seen in the feces. Larvae resembling Rhabdias also have been seen in the gingiva of snakes with stomatitis.
Infections often are subclinical but may be associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. In severe cases, death may result. Stomach worms of the genus Physaloptera are seen in lizards.
Gastric ulceration may occur in severe infections. Ova are elliptical and may be embryonated. Numerous snakes are infected by Kalicephalus spp. This hookworm, capable of transcutaneous infestation, prefers the upper GI tract and causes erosive lesions at sites of attachment.
Ova are similar to those of Physaloptera spp. Large granulomas caused by the above species have also caused GI obstruction in snakes. Ascarids frequently infect reptiles.
Ova are similar to those of ascarids from mammalian hosts. Severe lesions and death may be seen in infected snakes. Clinically infected snakes frequently regurgitate partially digested food or adult nematodes and are anorectic. The major lesions are large granulomatous masses in the GI tract; they may abscess and perforate the intestinal wall.
Many other nematode species may be found in reptiles. Capillarid, trichurid, and oxyurid ova may be found on fecal examination.
The nonpathogenic larval and oval forms of parasites of prey items eg, Syphacia obvelata , the mouse pinworm may be found when infected prey is consumed. Treatment should be attempted when evidence of parasitism is present. Some larval forms of nematodes are suspected or confirmed to penetrate the skin eg, Strongyloides and Kalicephalus , bypassing the oral reinfection route.