Human being

Breaking goals into skills; skills into practices

In developing countries, nearly all types of vegetables are eaten soon after they are harvested; unlike cereals, tubers, starchy roots, pulses and nuts, they are rarely stored for long periods with a few exceptions such as pumpkins and other gourds. Fermentation and germination increase the absorption of non-haem iron and other minerals;: Making health communications work: This combination, too, would be impossible without the void. Within a society people can be divided into different groups according to their income, wealth, power , reputation , etc. This page has been accessed , times. Serum lipid changes associated with modified protein diets:

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

Ancient Greek Philosophy

Human genetic diversity decreases in native populations with migratory distance from Africa and this is thought to be the result of bottlenecks during human migration.

Only part of Africa's population migrated out of the continent, bringing just part of the original African genetic variety with them. African populations harbor genetic alleles that are not found in other places of the world.

All the common alleles found in populations outside of Africa are found on the African continent. Geographical distribution of human variation is complex and constantly shifts through time which reflects complicated human evolutionary history. Most human biological variation is clinally distributed and blends gradually from one area to the next. Groups of people around the world have different frequencies of polymorphic genes. Furthermore, different traits are non-concordant and each have different clinal distribution.

Adaptability varies both from person to person and from population to population. The most efficient adaptive responses are found in geographical populations where the environmental stimuli are the strongest e.

Tibetans are highly adapted to high altitudes. The clinal geographic genetic variation is further complicated by the migration and mixing between human populations which has been occurring since prehistoric times.

Human variation is highly non-concordant: Skin and hair color are not correlated to height, weight, or athletic ability. Human species do not share the same patterns of variation through geography. Skin color varies with latitude and certain people are tall or have brown hair.

There is a statistical correlation between particular features in a population, but different features are not expressed or inherited together. Thus, genes which code for superficial physical traits—such as skin color, hair color, or height—represent a minuscule and insignificant portion of the human genome and do not correlate with genetic affinity.

Dark-skinned populations that are found in Africa, Australia, and South Asia are not closely related to each other. Despite pygmy populations of South East Asia Andamanese having similar physical features with African pygmy populations such as short stature, dark skin, and curly hair, they are not genetically closely related to these populations.

Due to practices of group endogamy , allele frequencies cluster locally around kin groups and lineages, or by national, ethnic, cultural and linguistic boundaries, giving a detailed degree of correlation between genetic clusters and population groups when considering many alleles simultaneously.

Despite this, there are no genetic boundaries around local populations that biologically mark off any discrete groups of humans. Human variation is continuous, with no clear points of demarcation. There are no large clusters of relatively homogeneous people and almost every individual has genetic alleles from several ancestral groups. The human brain, the focal point of the central nervous system in humans, controls the peripheral nervous system.

In addition to controlling "lower," involuntary, or primarily autonomic activities such as respiration and digestion , it is also the locus of "higher" order functioning such as thought , reasoning , and abstraction. Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While some non-human species are capable of creating structures and using simple tools —mostly through instinct and mimicry—human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time.

Humans are generally diurnal. The average sleep requirement is between seven and nine hours per day for an adult and nine to ten hours per day for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Having less sleep than this is common among humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects.

A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including reduced memory, fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. In dreaming humans experience sensory images and sounds, in a sequence which the dreamer usually perceives more as an apparent participant than as an observer.

Dreaming is stimulated by the pons and mostly occurs during the REM phase of sleep. Humans are one of the relatively few species to have sufficient self-awareness to recognize themselves in a mirror. The human brain perceives the external world through the senses , and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness , and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought.

These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience , sapience , and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, are studied in the field of neurology , the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders.

Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence , neuropsychology , and cognitive neuroscience.

The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition , the mental processes' underlying behavior.

It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism , whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology.

Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.

This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Psychologists have developed intelligence tests and the concept of intelligence quotient in order to assess the relative intelligence of human beings and study its distribution among population.

Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other.

The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition , ethology , evolutionary psychology , and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment.

Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of humans. Motivation is based on emotion—specifically, on the search for satisfaction positive emotional experiences , and the avoidance of conflict.

Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses.

Within psychology , conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics, motivation is often seen to be based on incentives ; these may be financial, moral, or coercive. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition.

The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition that a human can have—a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress ; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked.

Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant , such as love, admiration , or joy , contrast with those perceived as unpleasant , like hate , envy , or sorrow.

There is often a distinction made between refined emotions that are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist.

The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and non-domesticated mammals.

These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed.

However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. For humans, sexuality has important social functions: Sexual desire or libido , is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy.

The significance of sexuality in the human species is reflected in a number of physical features among them hidden ovulation , the evolution of external scrotum and among great apes a relatively large penis suggesting sperm competition in humans , the absence of an os penis , permanent secondary sexual characteristics and the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure.

Contrary to other primates that often advertise estrus through visible signs, human females do not have a distinct or visible signs of ovulation, plus they experience sexual desire outside of their fertile periods. These adaptations indicate that the meaning of sexuality in humans is similar to that found in the bonobo , and that the complex human sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history. Human choices in acting on sexuality are commonly influenced by cultural norms which vary widely.

Restrictions are often determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse , which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure.

According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process. For Alfred Kinsey , another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation , with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social groups. More than any other creature, humans are capable of using systems of communication for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization , and as such have created complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups.

Human groups range from the size of families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety [ clarification needed ] of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society. Culture is defined here as patterns of complex symbolic behavior, i. While many species communicate , language is unique to humans, a defining feature of humanity, and a cultural universal.

Unlike the limited systems of other animals, human language is open—an infinite number of meanings can be produced by combining a limited number of symbols. Human language also has the capacity of displacement , using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but reside in the shared imagination of interlocutors.

Language is central to the communication between humans, and to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least five thousand years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major technological advancement.

The science of linguistics describes the structure and function of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately six thousand different languages currently in use, including sign languages , and many thousands more that are extinct. The sexual division of humans into male, female, and in some societies other genders [] has been marked culturally by a corresponding division of roles, norms, practices , dress, behavior, rights, duties , privileges , status , and power.

Cultural differences by gender have often been believed to have arisen naturally out of a division of reproductive labor; the biological fact that women give birth led to their further cultural responsibility for nurturing and caring for children. Gender roles have varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies. All human societies organize, recognize and classify types of social relationships based on relations between parents and children consanguinity , and relations through marriage affinity.

These kinds of relations are generally called kinship relations. In most societies kinship places mutual responsibilities and expectations of solidarity on the individuals that are so related, and those who recognize each other as kinsmen come to form networks through which other social institutions can be regulated.

Among the many functions of kinship is the ability to form descent groups , groups of people sharing a common line of descent, which can function as political units such as clans. Another function is the way in which kinship unites families through marriage, forming kinship alliances between groups of wife-takers and wife-givers. Such alliances also often have important political and economical ramifications, and may result in the formation of political organization above the community level.

Kinship relations often includes regulations for whom an individual should or shouldn't marry. All societies have rules of incest taboo , according to which marriage between certain kinds of kin relations are prohibited—such rules vary widely between cultures. Rules and norms for marriage and social behavior among kinsfolk is often reflected in the systems of kinship terminology in the various languages of the world.

In many societies kinship relations can also be formed through forms of co-habitation, adoption, fostering, or companionship, which also tends to create relations of enduring solidarity nurture kinship. Humans often form ethnic groups, such groups tend to be larger than kinship networks and be organized around a common identity defined variously in terms of shared ancestry and history, shared cultural norms and language, or shared biological phenotype.

Such ideologies of shared characteristics are often perpetuated in the form of powerful, compelling narratives that give legitimacy and continuity to the set of shared values. Ethnic groupings often correspond to some level of political organization such as the band , tribe , city state or nation. Although ethnic groups appear and disappear through history, members of ethnic groups often conceptualize their groups as having histories going back into the deep past.

Such ideologies give ethnicity a powerful role in defining social identity and in constructing solidarity between members of an ethno-political unit. This unifying property of ethnicity has been closely tied to the rise of the nation state as the predominant form of political organization in the 19th and 20th centuries. Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. Within a society people can be divided into different groups according to their income, wealth, power , reputation , etc.

Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber , "a state is a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory.

Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups; this process often involves conflict as well as compromise.

Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap.

Examples of governments include monarchy, Communist state , military dictatorship , theocracy , and liberal democracy , the last of which is considered dominant today. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics.

Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods and services, and is a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. Because of specialization and division of labor , most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labor for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production.

Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation , production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value.

War is a state of organized armed conflict between states or non-state actors. War is characterized by the use of lethal violence against others—whether between combatants or upon non-combatants —to achieve military goals through force.

Lesser, often spontaneous conflicts, such as brawls, riots , revolts , and melees , are not considered to be warfare. Revolutions can be nonviolent or an organized and armed revolution which denotes a state of war. During the 20th century, it is estimated that between and million people died as a result of war. A war between internal elements of a state is a civil war. There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare.

Techniques include hand to hand combat , the use of ranged weapons , naval warfare , and, more recently, air support. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat.

Propaganda, which often includes information, slanted opinion and disinformation, plays a key role both in maintaining unity within a warring group and in sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare , soldiers and combat vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and aircraft the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines , paratroopers , aircraft carriers , and surface-to-air missiles , among others.

Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well through their use for detailed intelligence gathering; however, no known aggressive actions have been taken from space. Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2. Since then, humans have made major advances, developing complex technology to create tools to aid their lives and allowing for other advancements in culture. Major leaps in technology include the discovery of agriculture—what is known as the Neolithic Revolution , and the invention of automated machines in the Industrial Revolution.

Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools , pottery , and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times. Throughout history, humans have altered their appearance by wearing clothing [] and adornments , by trimming or shaving hair or by means of body modifications. Body modification is the deliberate altering of the human body for any non-medical reason, such as aesthetics, sexual enhancement, a rite of passage, religious reasons, to display group membership or affiliation, to create body art , shock value, or self-expression.

Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of reality, reasoning and values. Major fields of philosophy include logic , metaphysics , epistemology , philosophy of mind , and axiology which includes ethics and aesthetics.

Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is used to refer to a worldview , to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy. Religion is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural , sacred or divine , and practices, values , institutions and rituals associated with such belief.

Some religions also have a moral code. The evolution and the history of the first religions have recently become areas of active scientific investigation. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death commonly involving belief in an afterlife , the origin of life , the nature of the universe religious cosmology and its ultimate fate eschatology , and what is moral or immoral.

A common source for answers to these questions are beliefs in transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit , is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life , and the ideal way to live one's life.

Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God.

Although the exact level of religiosity can be hard to measure, [] a majority of humans professes some variety of religious or spiritual belief, although many in some countries a majority are irreligious.

This includes humans who have no religious beliefs or do not identify with any religion. Humanism is a philosophy which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to humans; it is usually non-religious. Most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level; the two are not generally considered mutually exclusive and a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views.

The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology.

Humans have been producing art works at least since the days of Cro-Magnon. Art may be defined as a form of cultural expression and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration i. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them.

In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works that, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody.

Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. Literature, the body of written—and possibly oral—works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic , legend, myth, ballad, and folklore. Another unique aspect of human culture and thought is the development of complex methods for acquiring knowledge through observation, quantification, and verification.

All of science can be divided into three major branches, the formal sciences e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about humans as a species. For other uses, see Human disambiguation. For the concept of human races, see Race human classification. Man word and Names for the human species. Life timeline and Nature timeline. Homo and Homo sapiens. Anthropology , Human evolution , and Timeline of human evolution. Archaic human admixture with modern humans , Early human migrations , Multiregional origin of modern humans , Prehistoric autopsy , and Recent African origin of modern humans.

Neolithic Revolution and Cradle of civilization. History of the world. Human migration , Demography , and World population. Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed.

The female model is wearing red nail polish on her toenails and a ring. Vitruvian Man , Leonardo da Vinci 's image is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry of the human body, and by extension, of the universe as a whole. Human physical appearance , Anatomically modern human , and Sex differences in humans. Boy and girl before puberty. Adolescent male and female. Adult man and woman.

Elderly man and woman. Childbirth , Life expectancy , and Human development biology. Venus of Willendorf statuette from the Upper Palaeolithic period. Two starved boys during the Russian famine of — Human brain and Mind. Love and Human sexuality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Culture , Society , and Human behavior. Gender role and Gender. Origins of society , Society , Government , Politics , and State polity. Clothing , Body modification , and Haircut. Philosophy and Human self-reflection. Art , Music , and Literature. This section does not cite any sources.

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