Aging in dogs

Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
This diet is super healthy and does allow plenty of choices: Archived from the original on 10 June Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: Autophagy Nov—Dec;3 6: The repertoire of vocalisations is also large; rather than discrete signals, variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication. I was on a low-fat, high fiber diet which is, necessarily a high carbohydrate diet. The Journal of Lipid Research Jan;7 1:



Cultural depictions of lions were prominent in the Upper Paleolithic period; carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 17, years ago, and depictions have occurred in virtually all ancient and medieval cultures that coincided with the lion's former and current ranges.

The lion's name, which is similar in many Romance languages , is derived from Latin: In , Carl Linnaeus described the lion in his work Systema Naturae and gave it the scientific name Felis leo. Because these characteristics show much variation between individuals, most of these forms were probably not true subspecies, especially because they were often based upon museum material with "striking, but abnormal" morphological characteristics.

Based on the morphology of 58 lion skulls in three European museums, the subspecies krugeri , nubica , persica and senegalensis were assessed distinct but bleyenberghi overlapped with senegalensis and krugeri. The Asiatic lion persica was the most distinctive and the Cape lion had characteristics allying it more with persica than the other sub-Saharan lions. The lion's closest relatives are the other species of the genus Panthera ; the tiger , snow leopard , jaguar , and leopard.

Results of phylogenetic studies published in and indicate that the jaguar and the lion belong to one sister group that diverged about 2. The lion evolved between 1 million and , years ago in Africa, from where it spread throughout the Holarctic region. The gradual formation of dense forest likely caused the decline of its geographic range near the end of the Late Pleistocene. Lion bones are frequently encountered in cave deposits from Eemian times, suggesting the cave lion survived in the Balkans and Asia Minor.

There was probably a continuous population extending into India. A fossil carnassial found in the Batadomba Cave indicates that Panthera leo sinhaleyus inhabited Sri Lanka during the late Pleistocene, and is thought to have become extinct around 39, years ago. This subspecies was described by Deraniyagala in It is distinct from the contemporary lion.

During the last glacial maximum until about 20, years ago, the lion was likely distributed throughout most of Southern and Central Africa, and expanded its range northwards during the early Holocene about 10, to 4, years ago. Lions in eastern Kenya are genetically much closer to lions in Southern Africa than to lions in Aberdare National Park in western Kenya.

In a subsequent study, tissue and bone samples of 32 lion specimens in museums were used. Results indicated lions form three phylogeographic groups: Results showed little genetic diversity among lion samples from Asia and West and Central Africa, whereas samples from East and Southern Africa revealed numerous mutations indicating this group has a longer evolutionary history.

Results of subsequent phylogeographic research indicate that the species diverged into the northern and southern subspecies about , years ago. Extinction of lions in southern Europe and the Middle East interrupted gene flow between lions in Asia and Africa. In the 19th and 20th centuries, several lion type specimen were described and proposed as subspecies. There is phylogenetic evidence that Ethiopia was a contact zone between the two subspecies.

Other lion subspecies or sister species to the modern lion existed in prehistoric times: Lions have been bred with tigers, most often the Siberian and Bengal tigers , to create hybrids called " ligers " and "tiglons" or "tigons". Hybrids are still bred in private menageries and in zoos in China. The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress. The liger inherits the physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species; for example, its coat has both spots and stripes on a sandy background.

Male ligers are sterile but females often are fertile. Ligers are much bigger than normal lions and tigers; they are typically 3. The less-common tiglon or tigon is a cross between a lioness and a male tiger. The lion is a muscular, deep-chested cat with a short, rounded head, a reduced neck and round ears. Its fur varies in colour from light buff to silvery grey, yellowish red and dark brown. When they are born, have dark spots on their bodies; these spots fade as the cubs reach adulthood, although faint spots often may still be seen on the legs and underparts.

The lion is the only member of the cat family that displays obvious sexual dimorphism. Males are more robust than females; they have broader heads and a prominent mane that grows downwards and backwards to cover most of the head, neck, shoulders, and chest. The mane is typically brownish and tinged with yellow, rust and black hairs.

The functions of the spur are unknown. Of the living, non-hybrid felids, the lion is rivalled only by the tiger in length, weight and height at the shoulder. Due to the amount of skull variation in the two species, usually only the structure of the lower jaw can be used as a reliable indicator of species. Accounts of a few individuals that were larger than average exist from Africa and India. The lion's mane is the most recognisable feature of the species.

Mane colour varies and darkens with age; research shows its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors such as average ambient temperature. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male—male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year.

The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal. In Serengeti National Park , female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. Almost all West African males In the area of Pendjari National Park are either maneless or have very insubstantial manes.

The hormone testosterone has been linked to mane growth; castrated lions often have little to no mane because the removal of the gonads inhibits testosterone production. Cave paintings of extinct European cave lions almost exclusively show hunting animals with no manes; some suggest this is evidence the males of this species were maneless. In the Chauvet Cave is a sketchy drawing of two maneless lions that appearing to be walking side-by-side. One lion is mostly obscured by the other; the obscuring lion is larger than the obscured one and is depicted with a scrotum.

The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism that is caused by a double recessive allele. It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin. They were removed from the wild in the s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool. Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between and A melanistic Asiatic lion from Khuzestan , Iran, which was dark brown with nearly black patches, was described by Austen Henry Layard.

Intermittent bursts of activity continue until dawn, when hunting most often takes place. The lion is the most social of all wild cat species, living in groups of related individuals with their offspring.

Such a group is called a " pride ". Groups of male lions are called "coalitions". Large prides, consisting of up to 30 individuals, have been observed. Some lions are "nomads" that range widely and move around sporadically, either in pairs or alone.

A lion may switch lifestyles; nomads can become residents and vice versa. Females lions stay closer to their natal pride. Therefore, female lions in an area are more closely related to each other than male lions in the same area. The area occupied by a pride is called a "pride area" whereas that occupied by a nomad is a "range".

The reasons for the development of sociality in lionesses — the most pronounced in any cat species — are the subject of much debate. Increased hunting success appears to be an obvious reason, but this is uncertain upon examination; coordinated hunting allows for more successful predation but also ensures non-hunting members reduce per capita calorific intake.

Some females, however, take a role raising cubs that may be left alone for extended periods. Members of the pride tend to regularly play the same role in hunts and hone their skills. The health of the hunters is the primary need for the survival of the pride; hunters are the first to consume the prey at the site it is taken. Both males and females defend the pride against intruders but the male lion is better-suited for this purpose due to its stockier, more powerful build.

Asiatic lion prides differ from African prides in group composition. Male Asiatic lions are solitary or associate with up to three males, forming a loose pride. Pairs of males rest and feed together, and display marking behaviour at the same sites. Females associate with up to 12 other females, forming a stronger pride together with their cubs.

They share large carcasses with each other but seldom share food with males. Female and male lions associate only when mating. Males in coalitions of three or four individuals exhibit a pronounced hierarchy, in which one male dominates the others. Dominant males mate more frequently than their coalition partners; during a study carried out between December and December , three females were observed switching mating partners in favour of the dominant male. The lion is a generalist hypercarnivore [93] and usually hunts in groups.

Its prey consists mainly of mammals — particularly ungulates — with a preference for blue wildebeest , plains zebra , African buffalo , gemsbok and giraffe.

Lions kill other predators such as leopard , cheetah and spotted hyena but seldom consume them. In many areas, a small number of species comprise around three quarters of the lion's diet.

In Serengeti National Park, wildebeest, zebra and Thompson's gazelle form the majority of lion prey. Up to eight species comprise three quarters of a lion's diet. In October , a pride of up to 30 lions killed and consumed eight African bush elephants that were between four and eleven years old. In addition, even adult elephants have been taken down in this region, [] and so the prey-to-predator weight ratio of 10— Young lions first display stalking behaviour at around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old and begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.

Cooperatively hunting lions are usually successful. Males attached to prides do not usually participate in group hunting. They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night.

To protect their cattle from such attacks with that knowledge in mind, farmers have found it effective to paint eyes on the hindquarters of each cow, which is usually enough to make hunting lions think they have been seen and select easier prey.

The lion's attack is short and powerful; they attempt to catch prey with a fast rush and final leap, and usually kill prey by strangulation, [] which can cause cerebral ischemia or asphyxia and results in hypoxaemia or hypoxia.

They also kill prey by enclosing its mouth and nostrils in their jaws, which also results in asphyxia. Cubs suffer most when food is scarce but otherwise all pride members eat their fill, including old and crippled lions, which can live on leftovers.

On hot days, the pride retreats to shade with one or two males standing guard. Lions scavenge on carrion when the opportunity arises; they scavenge animals dead from natural causes such as disease or those that were killed by other predators. Scavenging lions keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, which indicate the death or distress of an animal.

Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a similar ecological niche and where they coexist they compete for prey and carrion; a review of data across several studies indicates a dietary overlap of Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas; in the Ngorongoro crater it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate.

The two species attack one another even when there is no food involved for no apparent reason. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories. Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant.

Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land, [] while the reverse is true for lions entering waterways, evidenced by the occasional lion claw found in crocodile stomachs. Most lionesses will have reproduced by the time they are four years of age.

During withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which may cause ovulation. She will often hunt alone while the cubs are still helpless, staying relatively close to the den. Usually, the mother does not integrate herself and her cubs back into the pride until the cubs are six to eight weeks old.

Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride.

The synchronization of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of survival, and sucklings are not dominated by older cubs. When first introduced to the rest of the pride, lion cubs lack confidence when confronted with adults other than their mother. They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults.

Male tolerance of the cubs varies — sometimes a male will patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, whereas another may snarl and bat the cubs away. Weaning occurs after six or seven months. Male lions reach maturity at about three years of age and at four to five years are capable of challenging and displacing adult males associated with another pride. They begin to age and weaken at between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest.

Females often fiercely defend their cubs from a usurping male but are rarely successful unless a group of three or four mothers within a pride join forces against the male. Both male and female lions may be ousted from prides to become nomads, although most females usually remain with their birth pride. When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory.

Lions of both sexes may interact homosexually. Lions are shown to be involved in group homosexual and courtship activities; males will also head-rub and roll around with each other before simulating sex together. Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions. Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey.

Ticks commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of lions. Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many perished or migrated and the local population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.

During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis. The virus occurs with high-to-endemic frequency in several wild lion populations but is mostly absent from Asiatic and Namibian lions.

When resting, lion socialisation occurs through a number of behaviours; the animal's expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful, tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking , [] which have been compared with grooming in primates. Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves.

Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. The repertoire of vocalisations is also large; rather than discrete signals, variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication. Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, miaowing and roaring. Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.

The lion prefers grassy plains and savannahs, scrub bordering rivers and open woodlands with bushes. It is absent from rainforest and rarely enters closed forest. In Africa, the range of the lion originally spanned most of the central rainforest zone and the Sahara desert. In Eurasia , the lion once ranged from Greece to India; Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece in BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country.

Aristotle considered them rare by BC, and by AD, they had been extirpated. Between the late 19th and late 20th centuries, it became extinct in Southwest Asia. By the late 19th century, the lion had been extirpated in most of northern India and Turkey. There are no subsequent reliable reports from Iran.

Its habitat is a mixture of dry savannah forest and very dry, deciduous scrub forest. Habitat loss and conflicts with humans are considered to be the most significant threats to the species. Zambia's Kafue National Park is a key refuge for lions where frequent, uncontrolled bushfires combined with hunting of lions and prey species limits the ability of the lion population to recover.

When favourable habitat is inundated in the wet season, lions expand home ranges and travel greater distances, and cub mortality is high.

In , a population of up to lions that was previously thought to have been extirpated was filmed in the Alatash National Park , Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border. The West African lion population is isolated from the one in Central Africa, with little or no exchange of breeding individuals.

In , it was estimated that this population consists of about animals, including fewer than mature individuals. They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin , Burkina Faso and Niger. This population is listed as Critically Endangered. These were the first sightings of lions in the country in 39 years. In Gabon 's Batéké Plateau National Park , a single male lion was repeatedly recorded by camera-traps between January and September Five hair samples from this lion were collected and compared with samples from museum specimens that had been shot in the area in Genetic analysis showed the Batéké lion is closely related to lions killed in this region in the past.

The samples grouped it with lion samples from Namibia and Botswana, raising the possibility that the Batéké lion either dispersed from a Southern African lion population or is a survivor of the ancestral Batéké population that was considered to be extinct since the late s. By , no lions were recorded in the protected area so the population is considered locally extinct.

The population has risen from approximately lions in to about in The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock. Lions are included in the Species Survival Plan , a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival.

The plan was started in for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure , having been hybridised with African lions. The African lion plan started in , and focused on the South African population, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions because most individuals are of unknown origin, making the maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.

The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal means captive lions are likely descended from Barbary lion stock. WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes. His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple. The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice.

Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India. Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time. Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions. The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers. The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners.

The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric. The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals. Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive.

Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s. Hagenbeck designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo ; although his designs were popular, the use of bars and caged enclosures prevailed in many zoos until the s. Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime. The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears. Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it.

Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature. The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts.

This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it". Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars. The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed. These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema. In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

The now-iconic lion tamer's chair was possibly first used by American Clyde Beatty — One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record. The lion's proclivity for man-eating has been systematically examined. American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks. While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R. Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there. Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night. For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm.

Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these. According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing". The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district. Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park. The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture.

It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature. The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness. Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, [] which they revered as fierce hunters. The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night. The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname. In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. Lions were considered the top class in these cultures' social hierarchies.

In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural. In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness.

The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship. The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal. In some stone reliefs depicting the Royal hunt of lions, the lion's divinity and courage are equated with the divinity and courage of the king.

The lion is the biblical emblem of the tribe of Judah and the later Kingdom of Judah. In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Book of Revelation , a lion, an ox, a man and an eagle are seen on a heavenly throne in John's vision; Rev 4: In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh. Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India. The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

The lion is featured in several of Aesop's fables , which were written in the sixth century BC. Similarly the wearing of lion skin such as the lion skin worn by Herackles also symbolizes victory over death.

Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently. Such descriptions specify whether lions or other creatures are "rampant" rearing or "passant" crouching. The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national association football teams such as England , Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions [] of the NFL, Chelsea [] and Aston Villa , a team of the English Premier League , [] and by the Premiership itself, Eintracht Braunschweig of the Bundesliga , and many smaller clubs around the world.

Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lion disambiguation. A species of large cat in the subfamily Pantherinae. Linnaeus , [3]. Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon.

A captive Asiatic male with a thick mane that is mostly dark. A pride of lion headed by one male at Masai Mara , Kenya.

Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti. Four lionesses catching a cape buffalo in the Serengeti. Handbook of Children and the Media. Children, Adolescents, and the Media. Unnikrishnan N, Bajpai S. The Impact of Television Advertising on Children. Television advertising leads to unhealthy habits in children; says APA task force [press release]. American Psychological Association; February 23, Accessed October 31, Macklin MC, Carlson L, eds.

In the Matter of Children's Advertising: US Government Printing Office; Media and youth consumerism. Comstock G, Scharrer E. Increasingly, TV's a mess of messages. March 30—April 5, ; 41 — Cinemas want movie fans to sit still for ads Associated Press. March 6, ; Business Outlook: Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: Report of the FTC.

Federal Trade Commission; September National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. National Academies Press; The Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry and cigarette advertising in magazines.

N Engl J Med. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth. Alcohol Marketing and Youth on the Internet. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth; Children's online privacy protection rule: Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes. Children's receptivity to proprietary medicine advertising.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Soft drinks replacing healthier alternatives in American diet. Selling food to children: Sharpening the Focus on Children. Accessed October 16, Cigarette Report for Federal Trade Commission; Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

J Natl Cancer Inst. Does tobacco marketing undermine the influence of recommended parenting in discouraging adolescents from smoking?

Am J Prev Med. Industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking [published correction appears in JAMA. Biener L, Siegel M. Tobacco marketing and adolescent smoking: Am J Public Health. Smoking initiation by adolescent girls, through Exposure to cigarette promotions and smoking uptake in adolescents: RJR went for teens. Alcohol Advertising and Youth. Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth; November Children, adolescents, and the media. Television alcohol portrayals, alcohol advertising, and alcohol expectancies among children and adolescents.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; The frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in televised sports, through Television advertisements for alcoholic drinks do reinforce under-age drinking. Positive responses to televised beer advertisements associated with drinking and problems reported by 18 to year-olds. Austin EW, Knaus C.

Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption: Television and music video exposure and risk of adolescent alcohol use. Alcohol advertising and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. Effects of interpretations of televised alcohol portrayals on children's alcohol beliefs. J Broadcast Electron Media. Time trends and demographic differences in youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television.

Prescription drugs and the cost of advertising them: Promotion of prescription drugs to consumers. Taras HL, Gage M. Advertised foods on children's television. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Kunkel D, Gantz W. Television Advertising to Children: The chronic disease of childhood obesity: Liebert RM, Sprafkin J.

Effects of Television on Children and Youth. Television's influence on children's diet and physical activity. Influences on the eating behavior of children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. J Am Diet Assoc. Behavioral evidence of the effects of televised food messages on children. Watching sex on television predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behavior. FDA tells Levitra to cool it with ad.

Harris L and Associates. Planned Parenthood Federation of America; US TV viewers find condom ads acceptable. Accessed October 18, Viagra and the battle of the awkward ads. The New York Times. Abstinence-only sex education policies and programs: Does condom availability make a difference?

An evaluation of Philadelphia's health resource centers. Condom availability in New York City public high schools: Impact of a high school condom availability program on sexual attitudes and behaviors. The impact of condom availability [correction of distribution] in Seattle schools on sexual behavior and condom use [published correction appears in Am J Public Health.

Condom availability programs in Massachusetts high schools: Adolescents, sex, and the media: Does the promotion and distribution of condoms increase teen sexual activity?

Notes to the Book