Dietary recommendations / Nutritional requirements

Student-Run Facilities

Old Dominion University
Nutrient levels should be adjusted to meet specific strain requirements, level of feed intake, and body weight and skeletal development. She announced in that she had a spiritual vision against the eating of meat and butter. The 10 dietary essential amino acids for swine are arginine , histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. The higher requirements during late gestation are attributed to rapid development of the fetuses. Archived from the original PDF on August 24, Bernstein says in his book he has not eaten fruit in 25 years, and this has made his health better.

FDA Homepage

FDA Internet Site Error

The NRC estimates requirements of 0. The requirements are higher for younger pigs and lower for finishing pigs, but the ratios of calcium: These levels are adequate for maximal growth rate and efficiency of gain , but they do not allow for maximal bone mineralization. Generally, maximal bone ash and strength can be achieved by including 0.

For gestating and lactating sows, calcium and phosphorus requirements are influenced by stage of gestation the first 90 days versus the final 25 days of gestation , parity, milk production, and other factors see Table: The higher requirements during late gestation are attributed to rapid development of the fetuses.

Swine producers may choose to feed slightly higher levels to sows to ensure adequacy of these minerals and to prevent posterior paralysis in heavy milking sows. The calcium and phosphorus requirements listed are based on daily feed intakes of 4.

If less feed is consumed per day, the percentages of calcium and phosphorus may need to be adjusted upward. The ratio of total calcium: The ratio is less critical if the diet contains excess phosphorus. When based on digestible phosphorus, the ideal ratio of calcium to digestible phosphorus is between 2: Most of the phosphorus in cereal grains and oilseed meals is in the form of phytic acid organically bound phosphorus and is poorly available to pigs, whereas the phosphorus in protein sources of animal origin, such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, and fish meal, is in inorganic form and is highly available to pigs.

Even in cereal grains, availability of phosphorus varies. ATTD phosphorus represents the phosphorus digested, and STTD phosphorus is the digestible phosphorus corrected for endogenous phosphorus excretions. Phosphorus supplements such as monocalcium or dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, and steamed bone meal are excellent sources of highly available phosphorus. These supplements also are good sources of calcium. Ground limestone also is an excellent source of calcium.

Phosphorus is considered a potential environmental pollutant, so many swine producers feed diets with less excess phosphorus than in the past to reduce phosphorus excretion. Supplemental phytase, an enzyme that degrades some of the phytic acid in feedstuffs, is commonly added to diets to further reduce phosphorus excretion.

The general recommendation is that dietary calcium and phosphorus can both be reduced by 0. The recommended level of salt is 0. Animal, fish, and milk byproducts can contribute some of the sodium and chloride requirement. Practical diets contain ample amounts of these minerals from the grain and protein sources, and supplemental sources are not needed. Magnesium oxide supplementation has been used to prevent cannibalism, but controlled studies do not support this practice.

These minerals are involved in many enzyme systems. Both are necessary for formation of Hgb and, therefore, for prevention of nutritional anemia. Because the amount of iron in milk is very low, suckling pigs should receive supplemental iron, preferably by IM injection of — mg in the form of iron dextran, iron dextrin, or gleptoferron during the first 3 days of life also see Iron Toxicity in Newborn Pigs. Giving oral or injectable iron and copper to sows will not increase piglet stores at birth nor will it increase the iron in colostrum and milk sufficiently to prevent anemia in neonatal pigs.

High levels of iron in lactation feed results in iron-rich sow feces that pigs can obtain from the pen. Iron can also be supplied by mixing ferric ammonium citrate with water in a piglet waterer or by frequently placing a mixture of iron sulfate and a carrier, such as ground corn, on the floor of the farrowing stall.

The copper requirement for growing pigs is low 3—6 ppm but higher for sows. The estimated copper requirement of 5 ppm for sows in the previous NRC publication was increased to 10 ppm for gestation and 20 ppm for lactation in the edition.

The action of copper at high levels appears to be independent of, and additive to, the growth-stimulating effect of antibiotics. Copper sulfate at high levels in the diet results in very dark-colored feces. Also, high copper diets result in marked increases in the copper content of excreted manure.

The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroxine, which affects cell activity and metabolic rate. The iodine requirement of all classes of pigs is 0. Stabilized iodized salt contains 0.

Although essential for normal reproduction and growth, the quantitative requirement for manganese is not well defined. Zinc is an important trace mineral with many biologic functions. Grain-soybean meal diets must contain supplemental zinc to prevent parakeratosis see Parakeratosis. Higher levels of zinc may be needed when dietary calcium is excessive, especially in diets typically high in phytic acid such as corn-soybean meal diets. In some instances, high levels of zinc oxide have been reported to reduce the incidence and severity of postweaning diarrhea.

Responses to zinc oxide and antibiotics seem to be additive in nature, much like the responses to high copper and antibiotics; however, there is no advantage to including high copper and high zinc in the same diet.

Similar to copper, high levels of dietary zinc cause increased zinc content in the excreted manure. For sows, the estimated zinc requirement was increased from 50 ppm in the previous NRC publication to ppm in the edition.

The selenium content of soils and, ultimately, crops is quite variable. In the USA, areas west of the Mississippi River generally contain higher amounts of selenium, whereas areas east of the river tend to yield crops deficient in selenium.

Under most practical conditions, 0. This trace mineral is regulated by the FDA, and the maximal amount of selenium that can be added to swine diets is 0. This trace mineral, which is a cofactor with insulin, is required by pigs, but the quantitative requirement has not been established. Cobalt is present in the vitamin B 12 molecule and has no benefit when added to swine diets in the elemental form.

These micronutrients serve many important roles in the body. This fat-soluble vitamin is essential for vision, reproduction, growth and maintenance of epithelial tissue, and mucous secretions. Vitamin A is found as carotenoid precursors in green plant material and yellow corn. The NRC suggests that for pigs, 1 mg of chemically determined carotene in corn or a corn-soybean mixture is equal to IU of vitamin A.

The use of stabilized vitamin A is common in manufactured feeds and in vitamin supplements or premixes. Concentrates containing natural vitamin A fish oils most often may be used to fortify diets. For these reasons, natural feedstuffs probably should not be entirely relied on as sources of vitamin A, especially because synthetic vitamin A is very inexpensive. An international unit of vitamin A is equivalent to 0.

This antirachitic, fat-soluble vitamin is necessary for proper bone growth and ossification. People quickly became "hooked" on the refreshing drink. Carbohydrates are highly addictive, and many people have lived their entire lives with an insulin rush from excessive glucose intake. Insulin is the body's most powerful hormone and makes resisting carbohydrates extremely difficult.

Many would rather be sick than give up their sugar soft drinks and fruit with high levels of fructose, the second most addictive carbohydrate. To be healthy one must break these addictions. Other foods also contained the new refined sugar, but Coca-Cola was available throughout the day and consumed between meals.

Most other high-sugar foods were served as desserts and considered a treat to be consumed in limitation. The second major development for cola soft drinks was the replacement of sucrose sugar with high-fructose corn syrup as the sweetener. Sucrose sugar is half glucose and half fructose, but high-fructose corn syrup is entirely fructose.

This conversion has made the products even more unhealthy. Diet carbonated soft drinks were a major improvement by the elimination of sucrose and fructose, but the artificial sweeteners that have replaced these sugars have suspicious health properties of their own. The first steel reinforced concrete grain storage silo was installed in and was an immediate success. The grains could be stored throughout the winter and reclaimed during the off-season in perfect condition.

The grain was kept dry and protected from rodents. These grain storage silos were installed on the great plains of the United States close to the harvesting areas. They now appear as clusters of huge concrete structures towering on the horizon. The grain storage silo reduced the overall cost of grain products and increased their consumption. The health of a society declines in direct proportion to the amount of grain eaten by its people. The more refined the grain, the more damage is done to the health.

Grain production has now become completely mechanized, from planting the seed on the farm, to placing bread in the packages for sale. White, and the Kellogg Brothers. Sylvester Graham was a religious, vegetarian nut who didn't have a clue about human nutritional requirements, yet he gathered thousands of zealous followers. He invented graham flour and the graham cracker in that switched children from a healthy diet of animal protein and animal fats to one of unhealthy carbohydrates.

Modern-day Graham crackers would make Mr. Graham turn over in his grave. Although his cracker was very unhealthy, it did not contain the high level of sugar the deadly hydrogenated fats as found today.

Graham's erroneous teaching influenced other vegetarians like the Kellogg brothers who followed in his footsteps. Graham preached against sexual desire that he referred to variously as "venereal excess" or "aching sensibility" and claimed his graham products would cure these "dire physiological" problems.

His diet certainly worked for him. His sexual desire declined to zero by age Graham died in at the young age of 56 because of his faulty diet. Reverend Graham was also a Presbyterian minister who preached the false doctrines of John Calvin. Basically, almost everything Mr. Graham believed and taught was wrong. White was the founder of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. She announced in that she had a spiritual vision against the eating of meat and butter.

Others accused her of copying the vegetarian diet philosophy of Dr. Jackson, but she denied it in church papers. Her denial does not appear to be credible. She obviously got her vegetarian diet plan from Dr. Jackson's book that she had in the house and not from Holy revelation.

The vegetarian diet is a violation of the Holy Scriptures of the Bible. Jackson also invented the first cereal made from grains which he called "granula" as a substitute for meat and eggs in the diet. Many people credit the Kellogg brothers as the inventors of cereal, but their discovery was making the cereal into flakes.

I had not heard of the several works upon health, written by Dr. Jackson, and other publications at Dansville, at the time I had the view named above. I did not know that such works existed until September, , when in Boston, Mass.

My husband ordered the works from Dansville and received them at Topsham, Maine. His business gave him no time to peruse them, and as I determined not to read them until I had written out my views, the books remained in their wrappers.

White made a public pledge to refrain from eating meat, but years later Mrs. White personally wrote many times about her eating deer, duck, oysters, herrings, chickens, and eggs after her vision and recommendation to her followers to avoid such foods.

White again made a public pledge against eating animal products. She died in Christmas morning we all took breakfast together--James Cornell; Florence and Clara, their two girls; Brother and Sister Moore and their three children; Sister Bahler and Etta, a girl living with them; and Sister Daniells, our cook, Father, and myself.

We had a quarter of venison cooked, and stuffing. It was as tender as a chicken. We all enjoyed it very much. There is plenty of venison in market. White Practice what she Preached on Diet? Cheating on the vegetarian diet is more commonplace than unusual. Vegetarians are typically "trying to cut back on meat" while they suffer a guilt complex for eating it.

Apparently, the guilt is sufficient suffering for them to continue to indulge in a food they falsely swear is unhealthy and turns putrid in the body. John Harvey Kellogg was a young man in Mrs. White's Church and received financial support from her for his medical education. He became a world-renowned physician, surgeon, and health reformer.

He was the inventor of protose a meat substitute which is currently made from nuts, beans, cornstarch, and seasonings and other meat substitutes. In addition, he was a prolific writer who published more than fifty books.

Kellogg came into conflict with the leaders of the General Conference over his attempt to get the control of all SDA medical institutions with which he had been associated. He also began teaching strange doctrines. His book The Living Temple was permeated with the principles of pantheism. Everything was done to help him see his error.

White worked with him personally and sent him many messages, but in vain. In he lost his membership in the church. Only a few intimate friends followed him. Kellogg, John Harvey, p. Pantheism and the "Alpha of Apostasy. While experimenting with different food production techniques at the Battle Creek Sanatorium in Michigan, William and his brother, Dr.

Kellogg, decided to run boiled wheat dough through rollers which enabled them to produce thin sheets of wheat. After a sudden interruption in their laboratory activities left cooked wheat exposed to the air for more than a day, the Kellogg brothers decided to run the wheat through the rollers despite the fact it was no longer fresh. To their amazement, instead of a single, large sheet of wheat, the rollers discharged a single flake for each wheat berry -- cereal flakes were born.

That same year, in order to increase awareness of the revolutionary product, W. As a result, sales leapt from 33 cases to 2, cases per day. How It All Began. Modern-day grain cereals made by Kellogg's and other companies contain a very high percentage of sugars. Some formulas list sugar as the leading ingredient on the package. Other blends may list a grain first but also list several different sugars such as sucrose, fructose, and high-fructose corn syrup. These products could best be described as grain-flavored sugar.

They sometimes contain hydrogenated vegetable or seed oil trans fats as described below. White and her Seventh-Day Adventist Church would have had little effect on nutrition and health of a nation because of the small size of the organization had it not been for Dr.

He went on to found the giant Kellogg's food manufacturing company that specializes in breakfast grain cereals. His efforts resulted in the entire English-speaking world switching from meat and eggs for breakfast to grain cereals. The meat and egg breakfast was composed of protein and fat with no carbohydrates, while the grain cereal breakfast was composed of nearly all carbohydrates with very little protein and fat. Prior to the advent of grain cereals in , the heart disease rate was very near zero with virtually no mention in medical books and journals of anyone having a heart attack.

After the advent of grain cereals and the refined sugar commonly used to sweeten the meal, the heart attack rate soared. The switch to the high-carbohydrate diet was in full effect. Kellogg was certainly a health reformer. His diet philosophies have led to early diseases and early deaths of millions of people. The grain raw material is only one percent of the cost of cereal, and the other 99 percent is manufacturing cost, packaging cost, distribution cost, and profit.

The package cost is undoubtedly much more expensive than the cost of the grain to make the cereal. This is why breakfast cereals are so heavily advertised on children's TV programs. Children whine and cry in the supermarket when they see the cartoon characters on the box that they remember from the clever TV advertisements, and Mommy simply throws it in the shopping cart to keep them quiet.

The result is a child obesity epidemic. The vegetarians of Southern India eat a low-calorie diet very high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat. They have the shortest life span of any society on Earth, and their bodies have an extremely low muscle mass. They are weak and frail, and the children clearly exhibit a failure to thrive.

Their heart disease rate is double that of the meat eaters in Northern India. Journal of Applied Nutrition, , Learn the truth about the terribly unhealthy vegetarian diet at: Vegan vs High-Protein Diet Debate.

Vegetarians develop high cholesterol and can't correct it. Animal Rights Terrorists Strike Again? Vegetable and seed oils are primarily comprised of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. These oils are liquid at room temperature and can easily become rancid because of their unsaturation. These oils have vacant bonds in their makeup of carbon and hydrogen atoms which allow an undesirable bonding site for other atoms or molecules.

Saturated fats have all of the carbon sites bonded to a hydrogen atom, which makes the fat inert against other atoms or molecules. This gives the saturated fatty acids chemical stability and also causes them to be solid at room temperatures. In the discovery was made that hydrogen atoms could be forced to attach to the unsaturated vegetable and seed oils by applying pressure and heat in a vessel were hydrogen was percolated through the oil.

The result was not a true saturated fat but a product called "trans fat. Trans fats are chemical lipids not food found in nature.

This process produced a product that could be substituted for saturated fat in food products but cost much less. Greedy food producers began using trans fats in food products without regard to their health effects. We now know these factory-made chemical fats are very unhealthy and damage the cells of the body, resulting in many diseases.

Trans fat manufacturers attacked animal natural fats with lies and distortions in order to promote their chemical fats. As usual, the gullible public bought the lies hook, line, and sinker. Animal rights advocates and vegetarians jumped on the bandwagon because they promote any lie or distortion ever conceived in their attempts to slow the general consumption of animal products.

The lies are almost limitless. Linoleic fatty acid is a precursor for arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, which is a precursor for the prostaglandin E2 series PGE2. PGE2 reduces the ability of macrophages and natural killer NK cells to kill cancer cells and tumors. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in abundance in grains, nuts, and seeds. These foods should be strictly avoided.

Healthy nuts are pine nuts and macadamia nuts that are low in omega-6 fatty acids. The edible oil industry produces omega-6 polyunsaturated vegetable, seed, and grain oils such as corn oil, soybean oil, Canola oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, and cottonseed oil. These oils are highly suspect as one of the leading causes of heart disease and cancer, both of which increased in concert with increases of omega-6 fatty acids in the diet.

Omega-6 fatty acids are pro-inflammatory and proven to cause or contribute to a long list of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and many others. Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with high intakes of omega-6 fatty acids Sweden. The above study proves that saturated fats and omega-3 fats as found in red meat and fish were not associated with an elevated risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but monounsaturated omega-9 fats as found in olive oil and polyunsaturated omega-6 fats as found in grains, seeds, and nuts increase the risk of breast cancer, especially omega-6 fats as found in grains, seeds, and nuts.

These excellent results are just the opposite to the myths, distortions, and lies promoted by vegetarians and manufacturers of high-carbohydrate foods. Beef, lamb, and pork with saturated fats are very healthy foods. The edible oil industry also produces hydrogenated forms of these oils, which make them more saturated. These hydrogenated oil are known by their opponents as the "deadly trans fats. Natural saturated fats don't cause heart disease or cancer and never did. It has all been a big fat lie.

Myths, Distortions, and Lies About Beef. Animal-Rights Terrorists Strike Again? The more fat you eat the lower your bad triglycerides. One normally does not think of the grain drill used for planting grains or the combine harvesting and threshing machine as having any detrimental impact on human health.

This would be a correct assumption if grains were a healthy farm product, but they are not. The case against grains and refined grain products is gaining momentum on a daily basis. The grain drill and combine harvester are closely tied to the grain flour mill.

These machines created a surge in the consumption of grain products and greatly reduced their prices. The reduced price of grain products displaces healthy foods like meat, fish, fowl, seafood, and vegetables by purchasers who are more price conscious than health conscious.

The constant barrage of false health and nutritional information by special interest groups continues to deceive the purchaser into thinking grain products are a healthy choice. His self-propelled model was built in and demonstrated in Nathan Pritikin developed a low-fat, low-protein, and high-complex carbohydrate diet in the s due to his obesity and clogged arteries. His program required a very low-calorie diet and was strictly against the use of any vitamin, minerals, or other supplements.

He reversed both of these conditions but died of suicide at the age of 60 years after battling leukemia, cancer of the bone marrow. Studies have now shown that his low-fat, low-protein diet causes cancer.

He was warned by others that his diet had less vitamin E than minimum standards. It was also deficient in essential amino acids and essential fatty acids.

This has the added advantage of minimizing nitrogen excretion. One IU of vitamin D is equal to 0. Ergocalciferol vitamin D 2 is used with an efficiency of 3 in poultry. Vitamin E requirements vary with type and level of fat in the diet, the levels of selenium and trace minerals, and the presence or absence of other antioxidants. When diets high in long-chain highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are fed, vitamin E levels should be increased considerably.

Choline is required as an integral part of the body phospholipid, as a part of acetylcholine, and as a source of methyl groups. Growing chickens can also use betaine as a methylating agent. Betaine is widely distributed in practical feedstuffs and can spare the requirement for choline but cannot completely replace it in the diet. All vitamins are subject to degradation over time, and this process is accelerated by moisture, oxygen, trace minerals, heat, and light.

Stabilized vitamin preparations and generous margins of safety are often applied to account for these losses. This is especially true if diets are pelleted, extruded, or stored for long periods.

Much of the phosphorus in feedstuffs of plant origin is complexed by phytate and is not absorbed efficiently by poultry. Consequently, it is critical that only the available phosphorus and not the total phosphorus levels be considered.

Appropriate calcium nutrition depends on both the level of calcium and its ratio to that of available phosphorus. For growing poultry, this ratio should not deviate substantially from 2: The calcium requirement of laying hens is very high and increases with the rate of egg production and age of the hen.

The chick has requirements for 38 nutrients, together with an adequate level of metabolizable energy and water. Some additional nutrients may be necessary for growth and development under certain conditions. These include vitamin C, pyrroloquinoline quinone, and several heavy metals. Non-nutrient antioxidants, such as ethoxyquin, are usually added to poultry diets to protect vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.

Enzymes that increase the bioavailability of dietary phosphorus, energy, and protein are often used in poultry diets when their costs are not prohibitive. In some cases, phytase enzymes are used to decrease the amount of phosphorus in the excreta to meet environmental regulations. Which of the following diseases is ubiquitous in almost every chicken flock throughout the world?

Cardiology is not a required rotation at OVC, but I picked it up nonetheless because it is one of my weakest subjects. Nutritional Requirements of Poultry. Energy Requirements and Feed Intake: Other Nutrients and Additives:

Popular Content