Medieval cuisine

The Most Peculiar Food Trends From the Decade You Were Born

The Best Ways to Lose 20 Pounds
I appreciate your sincerity and kindness, every word touched me. I will continue to reach a goal of , and hopefully, beyond for the remainder of my life. Reading Up My Blog. I just discovered it today. So hello Andie Mitchell, my name is Kyle. I specifically requested no chocolate. To find out, MoneyWatch analyzed eight of the biggest diet plans.

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So you are not working in the entertainment industry anymore? I came across your blog tonight and am sitting here on the verge of tears. But your words are wise and so full of inspiration and truth. I have to do that. That number is just a tool, albeit a powerful one. Thank you so much for sharing this piece of light on the internet. So glad I found your blog.

You lost pounds, that is amazing! A friend posted a picture of your coffee cake muffins on her facebook after making them. I asked her what they were and she gave me your link. You are truely amazing and I giggle everytime I start reading. I sent the link to a friend today and told her that your words move me like a well written novel. I found your blog on Pinterest and I am so psyched to make those buffalo chicken rolls, but more excited to have found your blog.

Congrats on your success finding happiness and gaining health. I look forward to interjecting some of your sage advice into my own life and trying some of your recipes!! Hey Andie I just want to say that I love your blog! Your food always looks delicious and your photos are gorgeous!

You are an inspiring woman: What a joy to read your blog. Thanks for sharing your journey and your recipes. Your blog is so inspiring! You are an amazing writer. I look forward to more inspiring words. Thanks for sharing your journey with us. I just found your blog.. I stumbled upon your website and see that you lost lbs. I am currently in the early stages of losing about that much myself.

How did you do it? Any tips or suggestions you might want to share? I am really glad to have found your blog, I need inspiration!!

Thanks so much for sharing! You inspire me to cook lighter for myself and my family! Not only do you speak what I feel, but we went to the same college and I think around the same time … so I feel even more connected to you!

Kick it up a notch! So here I am at work and sucked into your blog: What an awesome lady you are! The working yourself to death at the gym is nor was it ever my thing. So happy to have been connected you! Oh my, I follow you on twitter and know you through foodista, yet now I realize I never knew you.

I am so happy to discover your writing and your story. Congratulations on your book! I have to say, your boyfriend is one heck of a lucky guy.

I have some buddies coming over this weekend to watch football, and am planning on making the buffalo egg rolls. Buy her flowers, tell her she is beautiful, and appreciate what you have. Cheers, yah lucky dog! I came to look at the buffalo wraps recipe and found someone like my sisters and me. We have all suffered from emotionally eating, for reasons ranging from raising our younger siblings basicly on our own to sexual abuse to watching a another sister die slowly and painfully.

It is empowering to hear the voice of someone who has found the healthy end of weightloss and is willing to tell the story of the past and not discount it. You are an inspiration: I love your story and your beautiful smile. Looking forward to browsing through more of your blog. By the way, good luck on your books!

I am an Andi as well! And I too am 26yo. Thank you for your blog! I look forward to reading about your experience and getting your tips and maybe a few good recipes?! I gained alot of weight my first year in college and I hated to work out, but I still did it twice a day. I think the stress of having to work out made it hard to lose weight so I gave up the gym and just started cutting portions and walking and the weight all came off. You have such and incredible story and are an absolutely amazing writer.

For the first time, in a very long time, I feel inspired and hopeful. You are beautiful, then and now…. Happy to hear that you can enjoy a burger now and then, in moderation. Oh, and then walk Green lake of corse! I just came across your blog and am amazed by your weight loss and dedication to staying true to yourself instead of being a slave to the scale and gym. And now that I read that you only live about 45 minutes north of me, I want you to come to my house and kick my butt into gear and cook me yummy healthy food: Wow, what a lucky day it was for me to happen upon your recipe on Pinterest, which lead me to your incredibly witty and thought provoking blog.

Nice to meet you, Andie. I look forward to more of your creativity, humor and wit. My good friend Lynsay shared it with me and this is what i just shared on my Facebook about you:.

Thank you Lynsay Horton for sharing with me! It is incredible how we adapt as we learn about ourselves, our needs, what we can dissolve and what is worth the fight! Definitely check it out! I stumbled across your awesome blog via Pinterest. I have a 3 year old and gained close to 90 pounds while I was pregnant. Reading your blog has given me new hope! Someone pinned your blog on Pinterest today, so I followed the link.

May I ask what it is you are writing? Do you have a publisher? I always dream of writing for a living — but the process is difficult. BTW, just found your blog and read your exercise history…and cried so hard. I can more than relate. Too much to say…but not the strength to say it now. I give you a lot of Kudos. I myself have gone on the weight loss journey. I have lost pounds but still have around to lose. I was so proud of myself and what I was able to achieve with a healthy dose of exercise and eating right.

I find though the last bit of weight to be very discouraging to lose. It comes off slower, I find it harder to see the end of the tunnel now but about half way through I could see it clearly. I saw your blog posted somewhere…. I can not wait to read more and see what advice I can gain from you! Right now i feel like you back when you joined the YMCA.. Thank you for sharing your story..

I love your blog, your perspective, your word choices, your recipes. Thanks so much for sharing. I just discovered it today. I really appreciate your inspiration! I am so glad I stumbled upon this. Much like you, I grew up in the kitchen. Much like you, I adore good! Much like you, I also have sciatica although I have that nagging pain in my right buttock- not my left.

And much like you, I never really enjoyed the gym, although I love being active if that makes sense. I also just recently moved to Seattle, and I sold my car. I walk to work now 2 mi round trip and everywhere else I can. I hope that my lifestyle change can help me succeed like it has for you. You have inspired me to stay positive and keep trying. I have to ask… in your exercise history, where were those hiking pictures taken? I thought to myself they looked like Mt.

Then again, every hiking picture makes me think of Mt. I love this blog…found it just now on pintrest. Your blog is incredible — so beautifully-crafted and organized… I simply want to gobble it up!

You are definitely being book-marked: I love that you are so real! I love this blog, and I hate blogs — I tend to find them boring: I also adore that you have a firm grasp on the English language and grammar weird, I know, but verbiage really bothers me! I have been reading your blog for a couple of weeks now after stumbling across it on Pinterest, and I just had to tell you how much I adore you and your site. As a college student, you make weight loss and maintenance seem attainable—not an easy feat.

Thank you for sharing your story. You really are an inspiration… And quite witty, I might add! This is such a cool blog. There are so many blogs yet so few that really get a person. Bookmarking for many futures. I just found your blog while searching Pinterest for yummy recipes… you are an inspiration! Thank you for writing everyday and telling your story the good and bad. I love your heartfelt writing, your candor and your honesty. I resolve to plan ahead with lunch this year.

I do pretty well on dinners but love the prepare salad veges ahead of time idea. I am also loving the fluffy oatmeal recipe, off to try it now although here in Australia is it 30 degrees celcius here, our summer and may be a little hot!

I love the plan ahead nature of breakfast too. If I was to make a massive pot for five days would I just times all the ingredients by 5? I am so excited to find this site. Thank you for sharing your story with everyone, I am happy to know that there is someone out there that did look like me and successfully changed there life, I have been up and down on my weight since I can remember, I have started eating right and exercising more, but I do enjoy the good things but in moderation.

Thank you and good luck on your ventures. I love your site. I am so glad I found it. I was at my heaviest recently lbs and I am now down to and my first goal is to reach lbs.

Thank you for sharing your very inspirational and motivating story. I am so excited to hear that you are writing 2 books. Thank you so much Amy! Yes, the first book to be released Spring will be a weight loss memoir. The second is a cookbook: I just happened upon your blog and love, love, love it!

I came across your blog through Pinterest. I am so inspired by your story and your journey! I also struggled and continue to sturggle with my weight. Hearing your story is def great motivation and inspirational. I cant wait to try some of your recipes and i also cant belive you lost weight in Italy!!

So excited to start my journey. First of I am from Walpole so this is exciting and am currently in the whole weightloss stage, I have more to loose than you and you are inspiring. It makes me feel so good to read this blog and encourages me.

I just need to make changes and move more. Thank you for this. So I have finally decided to leave a comment. I come and check on your blog about twice a week for the past year or so.

Can You Say for Dinner? I literally had to come to this post to find that your name is Andie. So hello Andie Mitchell, my name is Kyle. I just wanted to thank you for the many amazing recipes and stories.

I have been a pescetarian for the past 4 years and your blog gave me that love for food again. Seeing your pictures of the beauty of food has made me appreciate it again.

It has really grown into a passion for me, thanks to you. So I just wanted to thank you. His all time favorite is the Roasted Broccoli. He can never have enough!! I have tried 2 of the recipes already and am doing another tonight. I am diabetic and trying to lose 35lbs and you have recipes in here that I can eat and not feel guilty.

I love Your blog. The recipes are a blast and fun! And thanks for sharing your journey. So appreciate What You Do! You are a great writer and your story of weight loss is one that I share. I will be back for more. I found your blog from a recipe posted on Pinterest by one my favorite authors Laurie Notaro. I have been eating better and living a generally better lifestyle for a few months now, and all the good ideas I can find, the better!

Thanks for the help!!! I have struggled with my weight for most of my 39 years. Thank you for sharing….

What a wonderful, inspiring blog!! Thank you so much for sharing your journey with us— and continuing to do so: I am so excited to have found you! You are honest with yourself and here on your blog. You have given me inspiration to be a better person for me.

The candy store by my house makes a jalapeno stuffed with peanut butter, dipped in chocolate. They ship too, but I think that you should make them and then make a blog post about how to make them, so I can make them too! I love your website. I have been overweight all my life, like you I reached a point not long ago where it was scary… so far I am 20lbs lighter and still moving. The sad thing is I actually work in fitness, I help other people get healthy but for a long time I had a false perception of myself.

Your blog has added a whole new outlook to some of the ideals I have been looking into. I just wanted to say thank you! I will recommend this to many of my clients. I am embarking on this journey myself.

Your blog is my new favorite website! You are a gem and an absolute inspiration! I look forward to your books. I am officially your new fan: So hello, my name is Michelle and I am now an official Andie follower: I just spent the last several minutes reading through your weight loss journey.

I am now hoping to keep coming back and checking in on you and your blog. I have to tell you, that your story was so impressional not only because of the success, but also because in the one photo of you with a friend uncovering a grill, you look so much like my own 20 year old daughter! We have both been eating healthier for the past few months and we have both taken off over 15 pounds, but we have a long ways to go. You are a real cutie!

Great choices of food and recipes. In the late Middle Ages, the increasing wealth of middle class merchants and traders meant that commoners began emulating the aristocracy, and threatened to break down some of the symbolic barriers between the nobility and the lower classes. The response came in two forms: Medical science of the Middle Ages had a considerable influence on what was considered healthy and nutritious among the upper classes. One's lifestyle—including diet, exercise, appropriate social behavior, and approved medical remedies—was the way to good health, and all types of food were assigned certain properties that affected a person's health.

All foodstuffs were also classified on scales ranging from hot to cold and moist to dry, according to the four bodily humours theory proposed by Galen that dominated Western medical science from late Antiquity until the 17th century. Medieval scholars considered human digestion to be a process similar to cooking. The processing of food in the stomach was seen as a continuation of the preparation initiated by the cook. In order for the food to be properly "cooked" and for the nutrients to be properly absorbed, it was important that the stomach be filled in an appropriate manner.

Easily digestible foods would be consumed first, followed by gradually heavier dishes. If this regimen were not respected it was believed that heavy foods would sink to the bottom of the stomach, thus blocking the digestion duct, so that food would digest very slowly and cause putrefaction of the body and draw bad humours into the stomach.

It was also of vital importance that food of differing properties not be mixed. Before a meal, the stomach would preferably be "opened" with an apéritif from Latin aperire , "to open" that was preferably of a hot and dry nature: As the stomach had been opened, it should then be "closed" at the end of the meal with the help of a digestive, most commonly a dragée , which during the Middle Ages consisted of lumps of spiced sugar, or hypocras , a wine flavoured with fragrant spices, along with aged cheese.

A meal would ideally begin with easily digestible fruit, such as apples. It would then be followed by vegetables such as lettuce , cabbage , purslane , herbs, moist fruits, light meats, such as chicken or goat kid , with potages and broths. After that came the "heavy" meats, such as pork and beef , as well as vegetables and nuts, including pears and chestnuts, both considered difficult to digest. It was popular, and recommended by medical expertise, to finish the meal with aged cheese and various digestives.

The most ideal food was that which most closely matched the humour of human beings, i. Food should preferably also be finely chopped, ground, pounded and strained to achieve a true mixture of all the ingredients. White wine was believed to be cooler than red and the same distinction was applied to red and white vinegar. Milk was moderately warm and moist, but the milk of different animals was often believed to differ. Egg yolks were considered to be warm and moist while the whites were cold and moist.

Skilled cooks were expected to conform to the regimen of humoral medicine. Even if this limited the combinations of food they could prepare, there was still ample room for artistic variation by the chef. The caloric content and structure of medieval diet varied over time, from region to region, and between classes.

However, for most people, the diet tended to be high-carbohydrate, with most of the budget spent on, and the majority of calories provided by, cereals and alcohol such as beer. Even though meat was highly valued by all, lower classes often could not afford it, nor were they allowed by the church to consume it every day.

In one early 15th-century English aristocratic household for which detailed records are available that of the Earl of Warwick , gentle members of the household received a staggering 3. In the household of Henry Stafford in , gentle members received 2. In monasteries, the basic structure of the diet was laid down by the Rule of Saint Benedict in the 7th century and tightened by Pope Benedict XII in , but as mentioned above monks were adept at "working around" these rules.

This was circumvented in part by declaring that offal , and various processed foods such as bacon , were not meat. Secondly, Benedictine monasteries contained a room called the misericord , where the Rule of Saint Benedict did not apply, and where a large number of monks ate. Each monk would be regularly sent either to the misericord or to the refectory. When Pope Benedict XII ruled that at least half of all monks should be required to eat in the refectory on any given day, monks responded by excluding the sick and those invited to the abbot's table from the reckoning.

The overall caloric intake is subject to some debate. As a consequence of these excesses, obesity was common among upper classes. The regional specialties that are a feature of early modern and contemporary cuisine were not in evidence in the sparser documentation that survives. Instead, medieval cuisine can be differentiated by the cereals and the oils that shaped dietary norms and crossed ethnic and, later, national boundaries.

Geographical variation in eating was primarily the result of differences in climate, political administration, and local customs that varied across the continent. Though sweeping generalizations should be avoided, more or less distinct areas where certain foodstuffs dominated can be discerned. In the British Isles , northern France , the Low Countries , the northern German-speaking areas, Scandinavia and the Baltic , the climate was generally too harsh for the cultivation of grapes and olives.

In the south, wine was the common drink for both rich and poor alike though the commoner usually had to settle for cheap second pressing wine while beer was the commoner's drink in the north and wine an expensive import.

Citrus fruits though not the kinds most common today and pomegranates were common around the Mediterranean. Dried figs and dates were available in the north, but were used rather sparingly in cooking. Olive oil was a ubiquitous ingredient in Mediterranean cultures, but remained an expensive import in the north where oils of poppy , walnut, hazel and filbert were the most affordable alternatives.

Butter and lard , especially after the terrible mortality during the Black Death made them less scarce, were used in considerable quantities in the northern and northwestern regions, especially in the Low Countries.

Almost universal in middle and upper class cooking all over Europe was the almond , which was in the ubiquitous and highly versatile almond milk , which was used as a substitute in dishes that otherwise required eggs or milk, though the bitter variety of almonds came along much later. In Europe there were typically two meals a day: The two-meal system remained consistent throughout the late Middle Ages. Smaller intermediate meals were common, but became a matter of social status, as those who did not have to perform manual labor could go without them.

For practical reasons, breakfast was still eaten by working men, and was tolerated for young children, women, the elderly and the sick. Because the church preached against gluttony and other weaknesses of the flesh, men tended to be ashamed of the weak practicality of breakfast. Lavish dinner banquets and late-night reresopers from Occitan rèire-sopar , "late supper" with considerable amounts of alcoholic beverage were considered immoral.

The latter were especially associated with gambling, crude language, drunkenness, and lewd behavior. As with almost every part of life at the time, a medieval meal was generally a communal affair. The entire household, including servants, would ideally dine together. To sneak off to enjoy private company was considered a haughty and inefficient egotism in a world where people depended very much on each other.

When possible, rich hosts retired with their consorts to private chambers where the meal could be enjoyed in greater exclusivity and privacy. Being invited to a lord's chambers was a great privilege and could be used as a way to reward friends and allies and to awe subordinates. It allowed lords to distance themselves further from the household and to enjoy more luxurious treats while serving inferior food to the rest of the household that still dined in the great hall.

At major occasions and banquets, however, the host and hostess generally dined in the great hall with the other diners. However, it can be assumed there were no such extravagant luxuries as multiple courses , luxurious spices or hand-washing in scented water in everyday meals.

Things were different for the wealthy. Before the meal and between courses, shallow basins and linen towels were offered to guests so they could wash their hands, as cleanliness was emphasized. Social codes made it difficult for women to uphold the ideal of immaculate neatness and delicacy while enjoying a meal, so the wife of the host often dined in private with her entourage or ate very little at such feasts.

She could then join dinner only after the potentially messy business of eating was done. Overall, fine dining was a predominantly male affair, and it was uncommon for anyone but the most honored of guests to bring his wife or her ladies-in-waiting. The hierarchical nature of society was reinforced by etiquette where the lower ranked were expected to help the higher, the younger to assist the elder, and men to spare women the risk of sullying dress and reputation by having to handle food in an unwomanly fashion.

Shared drinking cups were common even at lavish banquets for all but those who sat at the high table , as was the standard etiquette of breaking bread and carving meat for one's fellow diners. Food was mostly served on plates or in stew pots, and diners would take their share from the dishes and place it on trenchers of stale bread, wood or pewter with the help of spoons or bare hands. In lower-class households it was common to eat food straight off the table.

Knives were used at the table, but most people were expected to bring their own, and only highly favored guests would be given a personal knife. A knife was usually shared with at least one other dinner guest, unless one was of very high rank or well-acquainted with the host.

Forks for eating were not in widespread usage in Europe until the early modern period , and early on were limited to Italy. Even there it was not until the 14th century that the fork became common among Italians of all social classes. The change in attitudes can be illustrated by the reactions to the table manners of the Byzantine princess Theodora Doukaina in the late 11th century. She was the wife of Domenico Selvo , the Doge of Venice , and caused considerable dismay among upstanding Venetians.

The foreign consort's insistence on having her food cut up by her eunuch servants and then eating the pieces with a golden fork shocked and upset the diners so much that there was a claim that Peter Damian , Cardinal Bishop of Ostia , later interpreted her refined foreign manners as pride and referred to her as " All types of cooking involved the direct use of fire.

Kitchen stoves did not appear until the 18th century, and cooks had to know how to cook directly over an open fire. Ovens were used, but they were expensive to construct and only existed in fairly large households and bakeries.

It was common for a community to have shared ownership of an oven to ensure that the bread baking essential to everyone was made communal rather than private. There were also portable ovens designed to be filled with food and then buried in hot coals, and even larger ones on wheels that were used to sell pies in the streets of medieval towns.

But for most people, almost all cooking was done in simple stewpots, since this was the most efficient use of firewood and did not waste precious cooking juices, making potages and stews the most common dishes. This was considered less of a problem in a time of back-breaking toil, famine, and a greater acceptance—even desirability—of plumpness; only the poor or sick, and devout ascetics , were thin. Fruit was readily combined with meat, fish and eggs. The recipe for Tart de brymlent , a fish pie from the recipe collection Forme of Cury , includes a mix of figs , raisins , apples and pears with fish salmon , codling or haddock and pitted damson plums under the top crust.

This meant that food had to be "tempered" according to its nature by an appropriate combination of preparation and mixing certain ingredients, condiments and spices; fish was seen as being cold and moist, and best cooked in a way that heated and dried it, such as frying or oven baking, and seasoned with hot and dry spices; beef was dry and hot and should therefore be boiled ; pork was hot and moist and should therefore always be roasted.

In a recipe for quince pie, cabbage is said to work equally well, and in another turnips could be replaced by pears. The completely edible shortcrust pie did not appear in recipes until the 15th century. Before that the pastry was primarily used as a cooking container in a technique known as ' huff paste '. Extant recipe collections show that gastronomy in the Late Middle Ages developed significantly. New techniques, like the shortcrust pie and the clarification of jelly with egg whites began to appear in recipes in the late 14th century and recipes began to include detailed instructions instead of being mere memory aids to an already skilled cook.

In most households, cooking was done on an open hearth in the middle of the main living area, to make efficient use of the heat. This was the most common arrangement, even in wealthy households, for most of the Middle Ages, where the kitchen was combined with the dining hall. Towards the Late Middle Ages a separate kitchen area began to evolve. The first step was to move the fireplaces towards the walls of the main hall, and later to build a separate building or wing that contained a dedicated kitchen area, often separated from the main building by a covered arcade.

This way, the smoke, odors and bustle of the kitchen could be kept out of sight of guests, and the fire risk lessened. Many basic variations of cooking utensils available today, such as frying pans , pots , kettles , and waffle irons , already existed, although they were often too expensive for poorer households.

Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen. Utensils were often held directly over the fire or placed into embers on tripods. To assist the cook there were also assorted knives, stirring spoons, ladles and graters. In wealthy households one of the most common tools was the mortar and sieve cloth, since many medieval recipes called for food to be finely chopped, mashed, strained and seasoned either before or after cooking.

This was based on a belief among physicians that the finer the consistency of food, the more effectively the body would absorb the nourishment. It also gave skilled cooks the opportunity to elaborately shape the results. Fine-textured food was also associated with wealth; for example, finely milled flour was expensive, while the bread of commoners was typically brown and coarse. A typical procedure was farcing from the Latin farcio , "to cram" , to skin and dress an animal, grind up the meat and mix it with spices and other ingredients and then return it into its own skin, or mold it into the shape of a completely different animal.

The kitchen staff of huge noble or royal courts occasionally numbered in the hundreds: While an average peasant household often made do with firewood collected from the surrounding woodlands, the major kitchens of households had to cope with the logistics of daily providing at least two meals for several hundred people.

Guidelines on how to prepare for a two-day banquet can be found in the cookbook Du fait de cuisine "On cookery" written in in part to compete with the court of Burgundy [44] by Maistre Chiquart, master chef of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy. Food preservation methods were basically the same as had been used since antiquity, and did not change much until the invention of canning in the early 19th century.

The most common and simplest method was to expose foodstuffs to heat or wind to remove moisture , thereby prolonging the durability if not the flavor of almost any type of food from cereals to meats; the drying of food worked by drastically reducing the activity of various water-dependent microorganisms that cause decay. In warm climates this was mostly achieved by leaving food out in the sun, and in the cooler northern climates by exposure to strong winds especially common for the preparation of stockfish , or in warm ovens, cellars, attics, and at times even in living quarters.

Subjecting food to a number of chemical processes such as smoking , salting , brining , conserving or fermenting also made it keep longer. Most of these methods had the advantage of shorter preparation times and of introducing new flavors. Smoking or salting meat of livestock butchered in autumn was a common household strategy to avoid having to feed more animals than necessary during the lean winter months.

Vegetables, eggs or fish were also often pickled in tightly packed jars, containing brine and acidic liquids lemon juice , verjuice or vinegar. Another method was to seal the food by cooking it in sugar or honey or fat, in which it was then stored.

Microbial modification was also encouraged, however, by a number of methods; grains, fruit and grapes were turned into alcoholic drinks thus killing any pathogens, and milk was fermented and curdled into a multitude of cheeses or buttermilk. The majority of the European population before industrialization lived in rural communities or isolated farms and households.

The norm was self-sufficiency with only a small percentage of production being exported or sold in markets. Large towns were exceptions and required their surrounding hinterlands to support them with food and fuel. The dense urban population could support a wide variety of food establishments that catered to various social groups. Many of the poor city dwellers had to live in cramped conditions without access to a kitchen or even a hearth, and many did not own the equipment for basic cooking.

Food from vendors was in such cases the only option. Cookshops could either sell ready-made hot food, an early form of fast food , or offer cooking services while the customers supplied some or all of the ingredients. Travellers, such as pilgrims en route to a holy site, made use of professional cooks to avoid having to carry their provisions with them. For the more affluent, there were many types of specialist that could supply various foods and condiments: Well-off citizens who had the means to cook at home could on special occasions hire professionals when their own kitchen or staff could not handle the burden of throwing a major banquet.

Urban cookshops that catered to workers or the destitute were regarded as unsavory and disreputable places by the well-to-do and professional cooks tended to have a bad reputation. Geoffrey Chaucer 's Hodge of Ware, the London cook from the Canterbury Tales , is described as a sleazy purveyor of unpalatable food.

French cardinal Jacques de Vitry 's sermons from the early 13th century describe sellers of cooked meat as an outright health hazard. The stereotypical cook in art and literature was male, hot-tempered, prone to drunkenness, and often depicted guarding his stewpot from being pilfered by both humans and animals. In the early 15th century, the English monk John Lydgate articulated the beliefs of many of his contemporaries by proclaiming that "Hoot ffir [fire] and smoke makith many an angry cook.

The period between c. More intense agriculture on an ever-increasing acreage resulted in a shift from animal products, like meat and dairy, to various grains and vegetables as the staple of the majority population. A bread-based diet became gradually more common during the 15th century and replaced warm intermediate meals that were porridge- or gruel-based. Leavened bread was more common in wheat-growing regions in the south, while unleavened flatbread of barley, rye or oats remained more common in northern and highland regions, and unleavened flatbread was also common as provisions for troops.

The most common grains were rye , barley , buckwheat , millet and oats. Rice remained a fairly expensive import for most of the Middle Ages and was grown in northern Italy only towards the end of the period. Wheat was common all over Europe and was considered to be the most nutritious of all grains, but was more prestigious and thus more expensive. The finely sifted white flour that modern Europeans are most familiar with was reserved for the bread of the upper classes.

As one descended the social ladder, bread became coarser, darker, and its bran content increased. In times of grain shortages or outright famine, grains could be supplemented with cheaper and less desirable substitutes like chestnuts , dried legumes , acorns , ferns , and a wide variety of more or less nutritious vegetable matter. I did NS about 4 years ago lost almost This past July was told my chloerstral and blood pressure was too high for 28 year old.

So black Friday I ordered when prices decreased. Hi Amanda — Thanks for visiting and reading my story. Hope it goes as well this time around. Thanks for sharing your superb review. You have a lot of good info here. I am looking for a diet to try just after the new year, and this might be the one.

Either way, appreciate all of the details you shared. Thanks, just what I was looking for. I have about 20 pounds to lose — is this doable in a month or two?

Hi Sam — Thanks for the positive feedback. Losing 20 pounds is definitely doable with Nutrisystem, but I would budget at least two months. I signed up for Nutrisystem this week, and I am really hoping that I have the same results. I think my first shipment should arrive just before Christmas, so think I will get started right after the holiday. Thanks so much for the review — definitely gives me hope! Hi Kris — congrats on signing up — while results will vary for everyone, I truly believe that you will lose a lot of weight if you follow the program — so stick with it, and let us know how it goes.

They try to rip you off when quit their auto delivery program. Very very unpleasant people to deal with. They shipped me stuff 3 days after I had already cancelled and had a confirmation number stating I cancelled. They refused to turn the shipment around or to take it back and are trying to create some kind of lie that I created a 2nd account in November and they only cancelled one account.

The only thing I did in November was update my credit card expiration date which I regret. If I guaranteed no more shipments are coming to my name or my address that should be the end of the story, not with them!

I am fighting them through my credit card company but please be aware of whatever traps they have in store for any of you.

Hi Troy — Sorry to hear that that was your experience. It was actually a customer service rep who told me I could switch from the meal delivery to just the Turbo Shakes after my first month on the program to lock in the auto-delivery savings without having to commit to another month of food. In any case, I hope you are able to get things resolved!

I started the program today, January 1st. My resolution is to feel better about myself, but do it in a healthy way that had structure. How much and when I should be eating vegetables, and ideas on what to eat if you have to attend a social function or business based meeting that involves food.

Thanks for posting a well written, and information overview of this program. I have three questions and maybe one is a question for a NS counselor… 1.

Or can tomatoes, cukes, etc. Also, plain or with some sort of dressing? How many turbo shakes can you have per week… and when can they be consumed? Thanks in advance …. Hi Tami — Thanks for stopping by and taking the time to comment!

I always add extra veggies to my greens and have found the only thing you really need to watch out for is the salad dressing. But for me, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc. I usually have my TurboShake midday — around 2: That said, I would definitely suggest using the Nutrisystem counseling service for full clarification, though — especially for questions 2 and 3.

Best of luck if you decide to try the full program! I wanted to say that this article is nicely written and included almost all the vital info I needed. Thanks for the review. I second your recommendation for Nutrisystem.

Their service helped me significantly a few years ago. Hoping for the same results! Hi Maria — thanks for commenting! Hope it goes well again if you decide to give it another try. Have you found that Nutrisystem is a good way for keeping the weight off over the long term? How long do you really have to be on Nutrisystem before you starting seeing results? Just finished month 1 and lost about 9 pounds!

This post could not be written any better! Reading this post reminds me of my good old room mate! He was always trying new weight loss products.

I will forward this page to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing! I just read this well written post. I have a handicapped daughter who has gained so much weight. We have tried everything with very little success. After taking to her doctors we decided to give NS a try. She started the program on February 16, She is loving the food and the program.

She has already dropped three pounds. Her beginning weight was So she has a long way to go. But the support and your post will definitely help her obtain her goals for healthier lifestyle. We will keep you informed on her progress. Thank you so much. Hi Shirley — What an inspirational story — really hoping she has success! Thanks for keeping us posted, and wishing your daughter all the best.

I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!! I have been on Nutrisystem for about 5 weeks now. I lost 15 pounds the first month and have been following it to a T. The food tastes fine and it is very easy to just grab something pop it in the microwave if necessary and go.

I have been using My Fitness Pal to track my food and am eating about calories a day. The first week was really tough and I had a hard time, but I stuck to it. Now I m satisfied and use to it. Planning on finishing up the second month and then on the 3rd month working in more home cooked meals and tracking to stay at the same calorie level. Then will switch over to the auto ship of Turbo shakes for my 4th month. I have about 40 pounds to lose and feel like I am making some good headway with the Nutrisystem plan.

Good job on the review, very well written. Wow, nice job Carolyn! Thanks for sharing your story, and best of luck with the rest of your diet. I was very happy to find this website.

Just wanted to thank for your time for this wonderful read, and inspirational review!! Hi Kelly — sorry to hear that! Have you tried connecting with the Nutrisystem counseling service? We had to take Nutrisystem program for 8 weeks because we got it at a discount thru our insurance company. My goal was to loose 30 lbs.

At the end of the 8 weeks I had lost only 3 lbs. We did not care for the cardboard like food and did not get anywhere close to our goals. This program obviously works for lots of folks, but not for us. We did go to the Naturally Slim program and in 8 weeks I lost Naturally Slim is based on not what you eat but when and how you eat and you eat your own real food and got real results.

We will stay with our new habits learned with Naturally Slim and will not have any good words from our Nutrisystem experience. Hi John — thanks for sharing your experience. Thanks so much for sharing your story. It was encouraging and helpful. I am only on my second day of Lean 13 and after comparing the Turbo Shakes with the protein powder I was using before, I noticed that mine was lower in calories, fat, sugar, and carbs and higher in protein by quite a lot. Thanks again for your review!

Hi Peggy — I think you should be fine using your own protein shake. Just to be safe you may want to talk to a Nutrisystem counselor, and they can let you know for sure. The biggest issue would probably be the calorie count of your shake vs. Best of luck with your two weeks. I made some raspberry coffee and chilled it.

Thought that might be a nice tip for someone else. Just finished day 1 of the Turbo Takeoff… I was down 2 lbs this morning!!! Yay… only 58 more lbs to go!!! I am so determined and my mind is in the right place to really do this, this time.. I am very excited for the results.. I know i will be on the program for a few months but, I really feel like I need the structure of this program right now. I have been feeling a lot of emotions from having gone through breast cancer and several surgeries the last 3 years… I just kinda let myself go… but, I am so ready for this change!!!

Thanks for sharing, Lynn!

Hi, I’m Andie Mitchell