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Basic Crustless Pumpkin Pie 1 Review. Beef Soup with Root Vegetables This satisfying soup will be on your mind long after you finish supper. Cover with foil and chill for at least 2 hours or up to 24 hours before serving. You might also like. Or can you only pick one from the list per day? An Overview of Diabetic Medication.
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Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, polyuria increased urination , polydipsia increased thirst , and polyphagia increased hunger.
Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache, fatigue , slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye , which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes.
A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes. Low blood sugar hypoglycemia , is common in persons with type 1 and type 2 DM. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of unease , sweating , trembling, and increased appetite in mild cases to more serious issues such as confusion , changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures , unconsciousness , and rarely permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.
Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon. All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years 10—20 but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
It is recommended that diabetics visit an eye doctor once a year. Diabetes-related foot problems such as diabetic foot ulcers may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation. Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes painful muscle atrophy and weakness. There is a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes.
Compared to those without diabetes, those with the disease have a 1. Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic.
Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates , and endocrinopathies e.
In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors,  such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans. However, the specific defects are not known. Diabetes mellitus cases due to a known defect are classified separately. At this stage, high blood sugar can be reversed by a variety of measures and medications that improve insulin sensitivity or reduce the liver 's glucose production.
Consumption of sugar -sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required. Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia high birth weight , congenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and skeletal muscle malformations.
Increased levels of insulin in a fetus's blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia , such as shoulder dystocia.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY is an autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY.
People with MODY often can control it without using insulin. Genetic mutations autosomal or mitochondrial can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases. Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis.
Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed. Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells. Other forms of diabetes mellitus include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis -related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids , and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes: A study suggested that three types should be abandoned as too simplistic. This is hoped to improve diabetes treatment by tailoring it more specifically to the subgroups. Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, adipose tissue and muscle, except smooth muscle, in which insulin acts via the IGF Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors play a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus.
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen. Insulin is used by about two-thirds of the body's cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as fuel, for conversion to other needed molecules, or for storage.
Lower glucose levels result in decreased insulin release from the beta cells and in the breakdown of glycogen to glucose. This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon , which acts in the opposite manner to insulin. If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance , or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles.
The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis. When the glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys will reach a threshold of reabsorption , and glucose will be excreted in the urine glycosuria. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent high blood sugar, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following: A positive result, in the absence of unequivocal high blood sugar, should be confirmed by a repeat of any of the above methods on a different day.
It is preferable to measure a fasting glucose level because of the ease of measurement and the considerable time commitment of formal glucose tolerance testing, which takes two hours to complete and offers no prognostic advantage over the fasting test.
Per the World Health Organization people with fasting glucose levels from 6. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease. Glycated hemoglobin is better than fasting glucose for determining risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use is similar in all regions of the world.
There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease , for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Learning about the disease and actively participating in the treatment is important, since complications are far less common and less severe in people who have well-managed blood sugar levels.
These include smoking , elevated cholesterol levels, obesity , high blood pressure , and lack of regular exercise.
Evidence for the efficacy of this remains equivocal, however. People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds.
In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications are recommended to control blood pressure. There is no single dietary pattern that is best for all people with diabetes. For overweight people with type 2 diabetes, any diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is effective.
Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels. There is broad consensus that when people with diabetes maintain tight glucose control also called "tight glycemic control" -- keeping the glucose levels in their blood within normal ranges - that they fewer complications like kidney problems and [diabetic retinopathy eye problems]]. There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications.
Some are available by mouth, such as metformin , while others are only available by injection such as GLP-1 agonists. These include agents that increase insulin release, agents that decrease absorption of sugar from the intestines, and agents that make the body more sensitive to insulin. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity and type two diabetes is often an effective measure.
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects.
In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique. As of , million people have diabetes worldwide,  up from an estimated million people in  and from million in Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common especially type 2 in more developed countries.
Diabetes was one of the first diseases described,  with an Egyptian manuscript from c. Galen named the disease "diarrhea of the urine" diarrhea urinosa. He described the symptoms and the course of the disease, which he attributed to the moisture and coldness, reflecting the beliefs of the "Pneumatic School". He hypothesized a correlation of diabetes with other diseases, and he discussed differential diagnosis from the snakebite which also provokes excessive thirst.
His work remained unknown in the West until , when the first Latin edition was published in Venice. This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians. The " St. Vincent Declaration "   was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Several countries established more and less successful national diabetes programmes to improve treatment of the disease.
People with diabetes who have neuropathic symptoms such as numbness or tingling in feet or hands are twice as likely to be unemployed as those without the symptoms. In , diabetes-related emergency room ER visit rates in the United States were higher among people from the lowest income communities per 10, population than from the highest income communities per 10, population. Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature.
Diabetes mellitus is also occasionally known as "sugar diabetes" to differentiate it from diabetes insipidus. In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats.
Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females.
In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles. Feline diabetes mellitus is strikingly similar to human type 2 diabetes. The Burmese breed, along with the Russian Blue, Abyssinian, and Norwegian Forest cat breeds, showed an increased risk of DM, while several breeds showed a lower risk.
There is an association between overweight and an increased risk of feline diabetes. The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections.
The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin and management of emergencies e. Inhalable insulin has been developed. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications.
It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes. Around 3, people with type II diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose control or the standard of care, and again the treatment arm had far better outcomes. This confirmed the importance of tight glucose control, as well as blood pressure control, for people with this condition.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Diabetes disambiguation. Complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus type 1. Keep the total carbohydrate servings to no more than four per meal. Memorize some basic portion sizes, especially for the carbohydrate groups.
For the fruit group, 1 medium fresh fruit; 1 c. One cup of milk or plain or light yogurt counts as a milk serving. A typical breakfast for a calorie meal plan includes 2 starches, 1 fruit, 1 milk, 1 oz. For example, an English muffin with 1 tbsp. For lunch, include 2 oz. Make a sandwich with 2 slices whole wheat bread, 2 oz. Or, make a chicken pasta salad with 2 oz. For dinner, include 3 oz. For example, have 3 oz. Or, have 3 oz. Include a mid-afternoon snack of 1 starch, such as 3 c.
Include an evening or bedtime snack of 1 starch, 1 milk and 1 fruit; for example, have 1 c. Video of the Day.