7th Graders - Life Science - it's alot like Biology!!
Art, Science and Evolution. There is no discrete boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and space, as the atmosphere gradually attenuates with increasing altitude. Cell Structure and Functions Virus defined and structure, Virus types, protein coat genetic material, Virus replication, Kingdom Archaebacteri- anaerobic methanogens, Kingdom Eubacteria, Schizophyata, Cyanophyta, Coccus, Bacillus and Spirillum, fission vs conjugation. Cell Structures and Functions. The lytic cycle is that part of the life cycle of a temperate phage in which it multiplies rapidly, destroying its host and releasing many copies into the medium. This tab takes you to a page with links to various short videos that I have captured from various internet sites, the videos have been converted to "stand alone" so my students are not subjected to inappropriate language, commercials etc.
Choose a video to embed
A cover for students to add a title, illustration and author's name for their own informational book about an animal. A page for students to use when creating their own table of contents for their informational animal book.
A page for students to use when creating a works cited page to document sources used during research. This unit is designed as an animal research-based culmination project. Use these resources to turn your classroom into a ZOO to let your little animal experts share what they've learned to an audience.
This is the perfect ending to an animal-based science unit or an animal-based information text genre study. Graphic organizers to gather background information on a chosen animal. A letter to send home for a habitat diorama project. A checkbric for grading the habitat diorama project. Animal groups signs to sort projects in the classroom "zoo". Includes 7 signs in both color and black and white. Animal habitats signs to sort projects in the classroom "zoo". Includes 8 signs in both color and black and white.
Nametags for students to wear at the "zoo" designating them as an animal expert. Nametags are fillable forms. Invitations for inviting families or other classes to tour the classroom zoo. Includes color and black and white. Invitations are fillable forms. Recording pages for visitors to record facts about the animal exhibits at the zoo. A reflection page for students to complete after holding a classroom zoo. This Jeopardy-style PowerPoint game reviews states of matter, changes, important terms, and ways to measure matter.
A test on the major concepts of matter including multiple choice, fill-in the blank, short answer, and written responses. A PowerPoint slideshow to teach the three forms of matter - solids, liquids, and gases. Includes interactive slides for students to identify if objects are solids, liquids, or gases. Photographs of solids 12 and liquids 12 to use in sorting activities. Students will discuss the properties used to sort. A complete unit filled with ideas and recording sheets for 8 solid learning stations and 8 liquid learning stations.
Also includes booklet covers for stations and a rubric for grading. Includes 19 files below. Measuring Solids - Students use centimeters and inches to measure various solids.
Identifying Solids - Students cut and label solids from magazines. Reading about Solids - Students record facts, examples, and questions about solids during reading. Weighing Solids - Students use a balance scale to weigh solids with two different units of measure.
Researching Solids - Students research solids using a website and record new information learned. Sorting Solids - Students draw and write how they sorted solids according to their properties. Counting Solids - Students understand that solids can be counted as they tally and record the number of certain solids in the classroom.
Solids Presentation - Students create a storyboard for a PowerPoint slide to show what they've learned about solids. Measuring Liquids - Students use teaspoons and tablespoons to measure various liquids. Identifying Liquids - Students cut and label liquids from magazines. Reading about Liquids - Students record facts, examples, and questions about liquids during reading. Weighing Liquids - Students use a balance scale to weigh lliquids with two different units of measure.
Researching Liquids - Students research liquids using a website and record new information learned. Sorting Liquids - Students draw and write how they sorted liquids according to their properties. Pouring Liquids - Students understand that liquids can be poured as they time the number of seconds it takes to pour various liquids. Liquids Presentation - Students create a storyboard for a PowerPoint slide to show what they've learned about liquids. A rubric for grading students' participation and work in solid and liquid stations.
Students choose 3 activities from this tic-tac-toe grid to practice matter concepts. Students move around the room to identify types of matter in this game.
Great to review for the test! Students move around the room to identify types of simple machines in this game. Students write and illustrate a story about how to use simple machines to lift a zoo animal into its cage! An entire unit filled with magnet experiments, writing activities, and assessment. Includes 11 files below. A cover to create student portfolios of magnet activities and journal writings.
Portfolio Activity 1 - Students explore the classroom to find out what magnets will stick to. Portfolio Activity 2 - Students explore various objects to determine the kinds of objects magnets will attract. Portfolio Activity 4 - Students explore the poles of magnets to learn about attract and repel. Portfolio Activity 5 - Students use paperclips to explore the strength of different parts of a magnet. Portfolio Activity 6 - Students make magnetic patterns with various shaped magnets and filings.
Journal writing pages for Portfolio Activities that requires students to use key words from the lessons. A scoring guide for grading Portfolio Activities and Journal writings. An entire unit filled with plant experiments, writing activities, minibooks, and data collection. Includes 14 files below. Students draw, label, and use construction paper flaps to learn about the 4 basic needs of a plant. Animals, Wind, or Water? Students play a board game to practice identifying different stages of growth.
Students move around the room to identify plant parts in this game. Students will create a weather calendar to keep track of daily weather for a month. Cloudy With A Chance of Students will use their own snacks to illustrate a picture of a food storm.
This page will be used to create a story problem about the food that rained down. Students choose 3 activities from this tic-tac-toe grid to practice weather concepts. A five-day weather calendar for recording precipitation, cloud cover, cloud types, wind and temperature.
Students move around the room to identify seasons in this game. Students create a sign to tell about the dangers of severe weather and tips of how to stay safe. Students try to get players to guess the weather term listed at the top of the card by giving clues without using the "forbidden" words listed on the card in this game.
Signs with real photographs of weather tools - thermometer, wind sock, wind vane, anemometer, and rain gauge. A sign for each food group that names the group, shows examples, and defines the group's benefit. Two sets of 43 food cards and directions for a relay game. Cards may also be used for classifying foods.
Students create a book about the food groups. Includes cover page and one page for each food group. Empires such as Rome and China long claimed universal jurisdiction ; during the Middle Ages , Italian maritime republics such as Venice and Genoa recognized the existence of rival states but claimed the right to close the seas to their traffic.
Truman 's unilateral claim of jurisdiction over the oil reserves of America's continental shelf in  directly led to the end of the regime. The "internal waters" landward of the baseline are solely under national control. A "contiguous zone" of a further 12 nmi are permitted for hot pursuit of vessels charged with violating customs, taxation, immigration, or pollution laws in the territorial waters.
Ships may cross numerous time zones on a voyage, so nautical time , introduced in the s, is used in international waters. Each such zone is uniformly 15 degrees of longitude wide, the ship's clock going forward one hour per zone when travelling eastwards.
Since the development of coordinated fleets of ships capable of landing an invasion force, naval warfare has been an important aspect in the defense or conquest of maritime states. The BC Battle of Salamis largely determined the course of the Persian Wars  not because of its inherent damage however considerable but because Themistocles 's deception and superior strategy left the Athenians capable of disrupting sea-borne supplies at will and potentially striking at the pontoon bridges across the Hellespont , cutting off the Persians' line of retreat.
Piracy —both illicit in ancient Cilicia and China and state-supported among the Cretans , Vikings , Japanese , English , and Berbers  —has remained a problem into the present day , given the expense involved in securely protecting every merchant vessel or in policing extensive coastlines. In the ancient world, in addition to Salamis , major naval engagements included the Battle of Actium , which permitted the establishment of Augustus 's empire.
In the modern era, important naval battles include the English victories against the Armada in and at Trafalgar in ,  which broke the threats of invasion by the superior land forces of the Spanish and French empires.
With steam, mass-produced steel plate, and exploding shells, European gunships permitted the New Imperialism of the 19th century, forcing open access to Africa , China , Korea , and Japan for their merchants on favorable terms.
Although internal politics hampered Chinese modernization, American naval power produced a major reform in Japan which bore fruit during the Battle of Tsushima when the Japanese were able to decisively defeat Russia. Meanwhile, the battles of the Mediterranean  and Pacific   theaters of the war had shown that air power was capable of overcoming the strongest warships.
Although the use of small private vessels for personal transport undoubtably extends back into prehistory, large ships capable of braving the open ocean were typically dedicated to trade or fishing for most of human history. Even military campaigns would often simply hire or commandeer these private fleets to serve as troop transports , as did the traders, pilgrims , and wealthy tourists of antiquity and the Middle Ages. The voyages of exploration and colonization were often provided for by the crown out of naval funds; where they were not, they were usually chartered or else purchased and then used for shipping supplies after the initial settlement.
Dedicated and scheduled local passenger services came to be offered in the 16th and 17th centuries, but the Black Ball was the first trans-Atlantic passenger line. In the Age of Sail , the duration of such passages depended much on the prevailing winds and the weather.
The 18th-century coastal Margate hoys began the popularization of leisure travel in Britain and Ireland  that later gathered steam with Thomas Cook 's package tours in the next century. By , the Atlantic crossing took about five days and the passenger lines competed to win the Blue Riband , an unofficial accolade accorded to the fastest liner in regular service.
For twenty years from , the prize went to the RMS Mauretania for its average speed of The sea still remains a venue for recreational boating and large cruise ships. It is also a route for refugees and economic migrants , some traveling in small unseaworthy craft and others smuggled into shipping vessels. Some flee persecution while many are economic migrants attempting to reach countries where they believe their prospects are brighter.
Use of the sea for leisure developed in the nineteenth century and became a significant industry in the twentieth century. Many humans enjoy venturing into the sea: This was not always the case, with sea bathing becoming the vogue in Europe in the 18th century after Dr.
William Buchan advocated the practice for health reasons. Other water sports include kite surfing , where a power kite propels a manned board across the water;  windsurfing , where the power is provided by a fixed, maneuverable sail;  and water skiing , where a powerboat is used to pull a skier.
Beneath the surface, freediving is necessarily restricted to shallow descents. Other useful equipment includes fins and snorkels.
Scuba equipment allows underwater breathing, permitting hours of time beneath the surface. Deeper dives can be made with specialized equipment and training. The sea offers a very large supply of energy carried by ocean waves , tides , salinity differences, and ocean temperature differences which can be harnessed to generate electricity. Tidal power uses generators to produce electricity from tidal flows, sometimes by using a dam to store and then release seawater.
The Rance barrage , 1 kilometer 0. The large and highly variable energy of waves gives them enormous destructive capability, making affordable and reliable wave machines problematic to develop. It was soon damaged by waves, then destroyed by a storm.
Offshore wind power is captured by wind turbines placed out at sea; it has the advantage that wind speeds are higher than on land, though wind farms are more costly to construct offshore. Electricity power stations are often located on the coast or beside an estuary so that the sea can be used as a heat sink. A colder heat sink enables more efficient power generation, which is important for expensive nuclear power plants in particular.
There are large deposits of petroleum as oil and natural gas in rocks beneath the seabed. Offshore platforms and drilling rigs extract the oil or gas and store it for transport to land. Offshore oil and gas production can be difficult due to the remote, harsh environment. Animals may be disorientated by seismic waves used to locate deposits, probably causing the beaching of whales.
The infrastructure may cause damage and oil may be spilt. The sea holds enormous quantities of valuable dissolved minerals. Bromine , accumulated after being leached from the land, is economically recovered from the Dead Sea, where it occurs at 55, parts per million ppm.
This has advantages over land-based mining in that equipment can be built at specialized shipyards and infrastructure costs are lower. Disadvantages include problems caused by waves and tides, the tendency for excavations to silt up, and the washing away of spoil heaps. There is a risk of coastal erosion and environmental damage. They form when geothermally superheated water is emitted from deep sea hydrothermal vents known as " black smokers ": The ores are of high quality but currently very costly to extract.
Desalination is the technique of removing salts from seawater to leave fresh water suitable for drinking or irrigation. The two main processing methods, vacuum distillation and reverse osmosis , use large quantities of energy. Desalination is normally only undertaken where fresh water from other sources is in short supply or energy is plentiful, as in the excess heat generated by power stations. The brine produced as a by-product contains some toxic materials and is returned to the sea.
Some estimates put the amount available at between one and 5 million cubic kilometers 0. In the Pacific these may cover up to 30 percent of the deep ocean floor.
The minerals precipitate from seawater and grow very slowly. Their commercial extraction for nickel was investigated in the s but abandoned in favour of more convenient sources. In deeper waters, mobile seafloor crawlers are used and the deposits are pumped to a vessel above. In Namibia , more diamonds are now collected from marine sources than by conventional methods on land. Many substances enter the sea as a result of human activities. Combustion products are transported in the air and deposited through precipitation.
Agricultural, industrial, and sewage outflows contribute heavy metals , pesticides , PCBs , disinfectants , cleaning products, and other synthetic chemicals. These become concentrated in the surface film and in marine sediment, especially estuarine mud. The result of all this contamination is largely unknown because of the large number of substances involved and the lack of information on their biological effects.
They are then passed up the food chain. Run-off of fertilizers from agricultural land is a major source of pollution in some areas and the discharge of raw sewage has a similar effect.
The extra nutrients provided by these sources can cause excessive plant growth. Nitrogen is often the limiting factor in marine systems and the addition of nitrogen sparks algal blooms and red tides , which then may lower the oxygen level of the water to the point where it kills marine animals.
Such events have created dead zones in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. The Irish Sea was contaminated by radioactive caesium from the former Sellafield nuclear fuel processing plant  and nuclear accidents sometimes cause radioactive material to seep into the sea, as at Fukushima in The dumping of waste including oil, noxious liquids, sewage, and garbage at sea is governed by international law.
The London Convention is a United Nations agreement to control ocean dumping which had been ratified by 89 countries by 8 June Much floating plastic trash does not biodegrade , instead disintegrating over time and eventually breaking down to the molecular level. Rigid plastics may float for years. Turtles and whales have been found with plastic bags and fishing line in their stomachs. Microplastics may sink, threatening filter feeders on the seabed.
Most oil pollution in the sea comes from cities and industry. It can clog the feathers of sea birds, reducing their insulating effect and the birds' buoyancy, or be ingested when they preen themselves in an attempt to remove the contaminant. Marine mammals are less seriously affected but may be chilled through the removal of their insulation, blinded, dehydrated, or poisoned. Benthic invertebrates are swamped when the oil sinks, fish are poisoned, and the food chain is disrupted.
In the short term, oil spills result in wildlife populations being decreased and unbalanced, leisure activities being affected, and the livelihoods of people dependent on the sea being devastated. In the Gulf of Mexico, where oil-eating bacteria are already present, they take only a few days to consume spilt oil.
Several nomadic indigenous groups in Maritime Southeast Asia live in boats and derive nearly all they need from the sea. The indigenous peoples of the Arctic such as the Chukchi , Inuit , Inuvialuit , and Yupik hunt marine mammals including seals and whales  and the Torres Strait Islanders claim ownership of the Great Barrier Reef.
They live a traditional life on the islands involving hunting, fishing, gardening, and trading with neighboring peoples in Papua New Guinea and Australia. The sea appears in human culture in contradictory ways, as both powerful but serene and as beautiful but dangerous.
It has been populated by fantastic creatures: The sea, its life, and its ships have been depicted in art ranging from the simple drawings on the walls of caves outside Les Eyzies , France, to the early Christian ichthys to the Dutch Hendrik Vroom to Hokusai 's ukiyo-e to seascapes by Winslow Homer.
Music too has been inspired by the ocean. Sea shanties were chanted by mariners to help coordinate arduous tasks and impressions in music have been created of calm waters, crashing waves, and storms at sea. As a symbol, the sea has for centuries played a role in literature and poetry.
Sometimes, it is there just as a gentle background but often it introduces such themes as storm, shipwreck, battle, hardship, disaster, the dashing of hopes, or death. But the sea, though changed in a sinister way, will continue to exist: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A large body of salt water surrounded in whole or in part by land. This article focuses on the collective seas of Earth. For individual seas, see List of seas.
Oceanography and Physical oceanography. Ancient maritime and maritime history , the history of navigation and cartography , and list of first human settlements. Seafood , Fishing , Aquaculture , and Whaling. Admiralty law and Law of the Sea. Naval warfare , maritime geography , and list of naval battles. Cruising maritime , Sailing , and Recreational boat fishing. Marine energy and Offshore wind power. Offshore drilling and Deep sea mining. Sea in culture and Nautical fiction. Nautical portal Water portal.
See the main body and the Notes, for the full range of understandings and definitions of the term. Experiments to recreate the conditions of the lower mantle suggest it may contain still more water as well, as much as five times the mass of water present in the world's oceans. Without this additional water, increased urination to remove the salt produces dehydration.
Gradually, they fall in with other waves travelling at similar speed—where different waves are in phase they reinforce each other, and where out of phase they are reduced. Eventually, a regular pattern of high and low waves or swell is developed that remains constant as it travels out across the ocean. Retrieved 7 January Introduction to Marine Biology.
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See also the commentary about this explanation in Lagrange, E. An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Physical and Numerical Aspects. The Encyclopedia of Earth. University of California Museum of Paleontology. Principles of Physical Geography. The Penguin Dictionary of Physical Geography. Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level. Waterbodies That Don't Flow to the Sea".
Water from the Mountains into the Sea. United Nations Environment Programme. EPA climate change web site. Carbon Emissions and Acidification". Principles for Clinical Medicine. Ocean biogeochemistry under global change".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Department of Natural Environmental Studies: Fisheries and Food from the Sea". Recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change".
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Understanding and Protecting Marine Biodiversity. The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. A Derivative of the Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory. Batavia Online Publishing Canberra. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Insights from the Y chromosome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The Polynesians — Prehistory of an Island People. The Statues that Walked: Unraveling the Mystery of Easter Island.
History of Ancient Geography. The Phoenicians , p. Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt B. Antarctic Program External Panel. Archived from the original on 2 February Archived from the original on The Discovery and Education of the Deep Sea. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Oceanographer and pioneer of deep-sea exploration". Scripps Institution of Oceanography. A Brief History of the Western World. Cross-Cultural Trade in World History.
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Blackwell Publishing, Danvers, Massachusetts. Charles Burton Gulick as Athenaeus , Vol. Harvard University Press, Shippen Oxford , Walker New York , The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Social Indicators through Newfoundland's Cod Crisis". The People's Republic of China ". Major Trends and Issues" [ permanent dead link ]. The End of the Line: University of California Press.
Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper.
Archived from the original on 1 February What will we be eating in 20 years' time? Netherlands Business Support Office Dalian , In Steele, John H. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. Mare Liberum [" The Free Sea "]. De dominio maris [" On the Dominion of the Sea "]. United Nations Office of Legal Affairs. New York , Hosted at the National University of Singapore. Dutton's Nautical Navigation 15th ed.
The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. The Battle of Salamis: Retrieved 21 April From Ancient Times to the 21st Century. An Analysis of the Fighting , p.
The Last Best Hope , Vol. From a World at War to the Triumph of Freedom — , p. A Twentieth-Century Naval Leader , p. A Year History of America at War , pp. Sea of Thunder , pp. Place, Faith, and History. University of Pennsylvania Press. International Council of Marine Industry Associations. Global Challenges in Recreational Fisheries.
John Wiley and Sons. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea. American Journal of Sports Medicine. Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy: Hansa International Maritime Journal. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. How much is really out there? Petrography, geochemistry, genesis and palaeoceanographic significance".
Geological Survey of Namibia. Ministry of Mines and Energy. Journal of Applied Sciences. National Geographic Daily News. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. A Sea of Change: A rapidly increasing, long-term threat". Countries and Their Cultures. Brief comments on the significance of maritime archaeology". International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. The Gods of the Greeks. The Naturalist's Library, Volume 8: Poetics of the Elements in the Human Condition: Part I — The Sea: The Cambridge Companion to Debussy.
Cambridge Companions to Music. The Symphonies of Ralph Vaughan Williams. University of Massachusetts Press. Translation by Rieu, D. Pulitzer Prize First Edition Guide. Translated by Hull, R. Astrophysics and Space Science. A vast ocean of a million stories. Find more about sea at Wikipedia's sister projects. Earth 's oceans and seas. Regions of the world. Regions of North America. Regions of South America. Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado. Retrieved from " https: Oceans Seas Oceanography Coastal and oceanic landforms Bodies of water.
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