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Want to Know More? Click on highlighted terms to look up definitions in the glossary. Home Stress Effects of Stress. Prolonged stress in young children can slow — or even stop — both brain development and physical growth. Prolonged exposure to cortisol released during the stress response can cause long-term damage to the developing brain, and can negatively affect the immune system.

Repeated experiences in the environment create networks of connections within the brain. When children regularly experiences chaos or stress, their brains become wired to react quickly to threatening, stressful experiences.

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What treatments are effective for people who abuse methamphetamine? Where can I get further information about methamphetamine? Ordering Publications Call or: Opioid Facts for Teens. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. Facts Parents Need to Know. It can take some trial and error to find the right medicine to treat post-TBI headaches.

Your family member should take all medications exactly as the doctor directs. He or she should talk with the doctor before changing how much medicine he or she takes, or how often. Stretching and strengthening exercises may help. Follow the directions of the health care team on these. Exercise, such as swimming in warm water, can help loosen the muscles that cause headaches.

If headaches do not improve or worsen, call the doctor. New treatment options can be tried. Your family member may be referred to a headache specialist such as a neurologist if headaches do not improve with standard treatment.

Altered sleep patterns are very common after TBI. This problem is usually worst in the first several weeks to months after injury. Many people with TBI sleep during the day and are awake at night.

They may nap now, when before they did not. Most people with TBI do usually resume a more normal sleep routine similar to the one they had before the injury. Time, patience, and some creative problem-solving help. Developing a consistent routine, using medications on a temporary basis, and changing the bedroom can improve sleep. He met other people who were in similar situations.

He would sit and channel surf. He was just going from one thing to another. Fatigue is a common complaint among people with TBI. The body needs a vast amount of energy for healing after traumatic injuries. Sleep is often disrupted in the hospital.

Usual patterns of rest and activity are often very different for many weeks to months after TBI. Confusion can make fatigue worse. Central fatigue is the major type of fatigue in TBI patients.

Central fatigue affects thinking. Working harder to learn and stay focused can make your family member mentally tired. In some people, central fatigue causes them to be irritable or have headaches.

So it took him a very long time to get over that fatigue, and he still has it at times. But when we first got home, he would be completely wiped out when he came home from work, and every single weekend was a wipe-out. And then that improved, and it was just Saturday that was the wipe-out. Now, most days are pretty normal. Most weekends are pretty normal. Every now and then we hit a time where he just kind of crashes. Peripheral fatigue is also reported by many. Peripheral fatigue is physical.

It can make pain, thinking, and mood worse. Fatigue reduces the speed and quality of rehabilitation. Fatigue can also slow down the return to normal life activities, such as school or work. For most people, fatigue gradually lessens over time. Stamina and endurance improve. However, some people with TBI say that for the rest of their lives, their endurance is just not what it used to be. They have to pace themselves more than they used to. Dizziness is a term used to describe everything from feeling faint or lightheaded to feeling weak or unsteady.

Under normal circumstances, your sense of balance is controlled by a number of signals that your brain receives from several locations. A TBI can disrupt this.

The greatest concern about dizziness is the increased tendency to fall when dizzy or lightheaded. Dizziness is often an early effect. It frequently goes away during the first weeks following injury. Driving in a car was really hard for him.

Long-term effects may include: