Climate Change Indicators: Bird Wintering Ranges

Zinc as a nutrient for agricultural crops in southern Australia

Please see this post: I added in arcalion Subutiamine and Hunasun Citcholine mg. Photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells send ambient light information to the SCN through monosynaptic connection to ensure that the circadian system is entrained to the daily light: Within a soil textural class, higher soil organic matter and better aggregation will allow more water to infiltrate into the soil, reducing erosion and preventing the loss of nutrients. Good soil quality is critical to protecting water quality by functioning to hold water, adsorb nutrients, and retain other contaminants. My fatigue, depression, brain fog, and low libido vanished! The residual effect of Zn fertiliser on acidic sandy soil in Western Australia is estimated to be about 23 years for a single application at 0.

The Definitive Guide to Nootropics

Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

This outer layer is divided into two further layers: The syncytiotrophoblast is a multinucleated continuous cell layer that covers the surface of the placenta. It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development.

The syncytiotrophoblast otherwise known as syncytium , thereby contributes to the barrier function of the placenta. The placenta grows throughout pregnancy. Development of the maternal blood supply to the placenta is complete by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy week 14 DM. In preparation for implantation of the blastocyst, the uterine endometrium undergoes "decidualisation". Spiral arteries in decidua are remodeled so that they become less convoluted and their diameter is increased.

The increased diameter and straighter flow path both act to increase maternal blood flow to the placenta. There is relatively high pressure as the maternal blood fills intervillous space through these spiral arteries bathes the fetal villi in blood, allowing an exchange of gases to take place. In humans and other hemochorial placentals, the maternal blood comes into direct contact with the fetal chorion , though no fluid is exchanged.

As the pressure decreases between pulses , the deoxygenated blood flows back through the endometrial veins. This begins at day 5 - day 12 [11]. Deoxygenated fetal blood passes through umbilical arteries to the placenta.

At the junction of umbilical cord and placenta, the umbilical arteries branch radially to form chorionic arteries. Chorionic arteries, in turn, branch into cotyledon arteries. In the villi, these vessels eventually branch to form an extensive arterio-capillary-venous system, bringing the fetal blood extremely close to the maternal blood; but no intermingling of fetal and maternal blood occurs "placental barrier".

Endothelin and prostanoids cause vasoconstriction in placental arteries, while nitric oxide causes vasodilation. The fetoplacental circulation is vulnerable to persistent hypoxia or intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation, which can lead to generation of excessive free radicals. This may contribute to pre-eclampsia and other pregnancy complications.

This begins at day 17 - day 22 [15]. Placental expulsion begins as a physiological separation from the wall of the uterus. The period from just after the child is born until just after the placenta is expelled is called the "third stage of labor". Placental expulsion can be managed actively, for example by giving oxytocin via intramuscular injection followed by cord traction to assist in delivering the placenta. Alternatively, it can be managed expectantly, allowing the placenta to be expelled without medical assistance.

Blood loss and the risk of postpartum bleeding may be reduced in women offered active management of the third stage of labour, however there may be adverse effects and more research is necessary. The habit is to cut the cord immediately after birth, but it is theorised that there is no medical reason to do this; on the contrary, it is theorized that not cutting the cord helps the baby in its adaptation to extrauterine life , especially in preterm infants.

The placenta is traditionally thought to be sterile , but recent research suggests that a resident, non-pathogenic , and diverse population of microorganisms may be present in healthy tissue.

However, whether these microbes exist or are clinically important is highly controversial and is the subject of active research. The placenta intermediates the transfer of nutrients between mother and fetus. The perfusion of the intervillous spaces of the placenta with maternal blood allows the transfer of nutrients and oxygen from the mother to the fetus and the transfer of waste products and carbon dioxide back from the fetus to the maternal blood.

Nutrient transfer to the fetus can occur via both active and passive transport. Waste products excreted from the fetus such as urea , uric acid , and creatinine are transferred to the maternal blood by diffusion across the placenta. IgG antibodies can pass through the human placenta, thereby providing protection to the fetus in utero. IgM , however, cannot cross the placenta, which is why some infections acquired during pregnancy can be hazardous for the fetus. Furthermore, the placenta functions as a selective maternal-fetal barrier against transmission of microbes.

However, insufficiency in this function may still cause mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases. The placenta and fetus may be regarded as a foreign allograft inside the mother, and thus must evade from attack by the mother's immune system.

However, the Placental barrier is not the sole means to evade the immune system, as foreign fetal cells also persist in the maternal circulation, on the other side of the placental barrier. The placenta also provides a reservoir of blood for the fetus, delivering blood to it in case of hypotension and vice versa, comparable to a capacitor. The placenta often plays an important role in various cultures , with many societies conducting rituals regarding its disposal.

In the Western world , the placenta is most often incinerated. Some cultures bury the placenta for various reasons. The placenta is believed by some communities to have power over the lives of the baby or its parents. The Kwakiutl of British Columbia bury girls' placentas to give the girl skill in digging clams, and expose boys' placentas to ravens to encourage future prophetic visions. In Turkey , the proper disposal of the placenta and umbilical cord is believed to promote devoutness in the child later in life.

In Ukraine , Transylvania , and Japan , interaction with a disposed placenta is thought to influence the parents' future fertility. Several cultures believe the placenta to be or have been alive, often a relative of the baby. Nepalese think of the placenta as a friend of the baby; Malaysian Orang Asli regard it as the baby's older sibling. In some cultures, the placenta is eaten, a practice known as placentophagy.

Some cultures have alternative uses for placenta that include the manufacturing of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and food. Picture of freshly delivered placenta and umbilical cord wrapped around Kelly clamps. Micrograph of a placental infection CMV placentitis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the human trophoblast. For general information about the placenta as an organ in biology, see placentation. For the ancient Roman Bread, see placenta food. Human placenta from just after birth with the umbilical cord in place. Immune tolerance in pregnancy. Magnified a little over two diameters. Close-up of umbilical attachment to fetal side of freshly delivered placenta. Archived from the original on Thus, keeping the redox-homeostasis in a steady state especially in the context of tissue regeneration appears to be more important than previously known and seems to be a controlled synergistic action of antioxidants and ROS.

The present review summarizes the properties and functions of ROS and nutritional antioxidants like the vitamins C and E, and polyphenols in redox-homeostasis. Their relevance in the treatment of various diseases is discussed in the context of a multi-target therapy with nutraceuticals and phytotherapeutic drugs. Vascular Health and Risk Management ; 4 6: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids CLAs , vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profiles and blood pressure BP in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis RA.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving daily supplements for three months. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition ; 64 1: University of Baroda, Vadodara, , Gujarat, India. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of green tea and vitamin E on heart weight, body weight, serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases in isoproterenol ISO -induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Revista de investigación clínica ; 60 1: Reactive oxygen species ROS have been involved in the induction and progression of damage of many human disorders, such as: In several studies, the synergism between alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E has been described and potent antioxidant effects can be obtained when both antioxidants are simultaneously used.

This review highlights recent findings showing that the combination of alpha-lipoic acid plus vitamin E effectively reduces oxidative damage in brain and cardiac ischemia as well as in other pathological events related to ROS increasing. These antioxidants are present in a broad variety of foods, are also available in several dietary supplements and their side effects are very rare.

Therefore, alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E may play an important role in clinical preventive medicine and human nutrition. Journal of the American College of Nutrition ; 27 1: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of dietary folate, vitamin B6 VB6 and vitamin B12 VB12 with the risk of coronary heart disease among middle-aged persons. A total of 40, subjects aged 40?

After , person-years of follow-up, coronary heart disease incidents were documented. Coronary heart disease and definite myocardial infarction were inversely associated with dietary intake of folate, VB6 and VB12 after adjustment for age and sex, but the associations were attenuated after further adjustment for smoking, dietary and other cardiovascular risk factors.

The study concludes that dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease among middle-aged non-multivitamin supplement users. Dietary folate and VB12 were also suggested to be protective factors for coronary heart disease. Texas Heart Institute Journal ; 34 3: Because adrenergic beta antagonists are not sufficient to prevent atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting, this prospective, randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid as an adjunct to beta-blockers.

Fifty patients formed the ascorbic acid group, and another 50 patients formed the control group. All patients were older than 50 years, were scheduled to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting, and had been treated with beta-blockers for at least 1 week before surgery. The mean age of the population was Patients in the ascorbic acid group received 2 g of ascorbic acid on the night before the surgery and 1 g twice daily for 5 days after surgery.

Patients in the control group received no ascorbic acid. Patients in both groups continued to receive beta-blockers after surgery. Telemetry monitoring was performed in the intensive care unit, and Holter monitoring was performed for 4 days thereafter.

The study concludes that ascorbic acid is effective, in addition to being well-tolerated and relatively safe. Therefore, it can be prescribed as an adjunct to beta-blockers for the prophylaxis of post-bypass atrial fibrillation. This confirms earlier findings of the double-blind placebo controlled study conducted by the Dr Rath Research Institute.

This clinical study demonstrated that a specific synergy of micronutrients used as an adjunct to conventional treatment provides significant improvements in decreasing frequency, severity and improving life quality of arrhythmia patients. Journal of Clinical Hypertension ; 9 4: Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.

Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. The Journal of Nutrition ; 2: Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease.

This study hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction MI and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program.

Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The study shows that plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin E increased after supplementation P http: The Journal of Nutrition ; 6: Consumption of tree nuts such as almonds has been associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease.

Flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin of almonds, may contribute to their putative health benefit, but their bioactivity and bioavailability have not previously been studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation on physical performance measured as maximum power output in young and healthy elite trained athletes. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, young German well trained athletes received either mg Ubiquinol or placebo for 6 weeks.

In these 6 weeks all athletes trained individually in preparation for the Olympic Games in London Both groups, placebo and Ubiquinol, significantly increased their physical performance measured as maximum power output over the treatment period from T1 to T3.

While adherence to a training regimen itself resulted in an improvement in peak power output, as observed by improvement in placebo, the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation significantly enhanced peak power production in comparison to placebo. Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries.

The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months.

Mental health days improved at 6 months. Vigor scale in POMS was significant at 3 months. Decreased pain was noted only for the elbow at month 1 and the knee at month 3. No adverse events were reported. Results of this study offer preliminary insight into using dietary supplements to support and optimize quality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort.

Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry ; 73 2: The effects of an orally administered combination of a glucosamine-chondroitin-quercetin glucoside GCQG supplement on the synovial fluid properties of patients with osteoarthritis OA and rheumatoid arthritis RA were investigated from the clinical nutrition view point.

Several parameters of the knee joints were monitored before and after supplementation. The OA patients showed a significant improvement in pain symptoms, daily activities walking and climbing up and down stairs , and visual analogue scale, and changes in the synovial fluid properties with respect to the protein concentration, molecular size of hyaluronic acid, and chondroitin 6-sulphate concentration were also observed.

However, no such effects were observed in the RA patients. These results suggest that the GCQG supplement exerted a special effect on improving the synovial fluid properties in OA patients. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have been evaluated in many studies as agents to relieve pain, improve functional activity, and slow disease progression in OA especially of the hip and knee.

Primorine is a combination of products thought to alter these biochemical oxidative byproducts. Based on current evidence, the use of a combination product of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate seems to have the greatest potential as a therapeutic intervention for patients at increased risk from the adverse events of accepted current oral therapies.

The use of primorine and its combination of products as an intervention in OA has theoretical advantages but its benefits are unproven.

A new product, relamine, is a combination of these three formulations. While no studies have evaluated glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and primorine in a single product, it may be an option for those who wish to try an alternate therapy for OA, as there appears to be a low risk for serious adverse events.

The Big List of Nootropics