How Your Digestive System Works

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Skeletal System
Oxygenated blood arrives in…. Obliquely striated muscle is found only in some invertebrate groups the nematodes, annelids, and mollusks and has the protein paramyosin in the thick filaments as well as myosin. Axe on Youtube 1. Erythrocyte red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, leucocytes white blood cells , produced in red bone marrow myeloid tissue , and lymphocytes fight infection and thrombocyte platelet are essential to blood clotting at the site of an injury. Your meal plan must be set such that it includes both taste and health, as there are some outstanding tricks to make the daily dose of food tasty and yet not compromise on the GM Diet plan.

Skeletal System Anatomy


Begin with preparing the chart for the 7 Day GM Diet ahead and paste it in your kitchen. Stuff your refrigerator with all the ingredients you will need and do not make the wonder soup for all the days to stock or freeze. Do not plan the GM diet chart for the days when you have extra work at office or home.

You need to be relaxed and comfortable to proceed without any interruptions. Holidays are definitely not the time as temptations and explanations will deviate you from your goal. Keep your daily schedule also tight. You must not sit idle as the more you sit alone, the more you may get tempted to cheat.

There must be a healthy blend of work, relaxation and finding time for self when you proceed with the GM Diet Plan. GM detox is all-inclusive for body, mind, and soul so keep distractions away. GM Diet is relatively safe and effective if followed with utmost diligence. People with health conditions must seek medical guidance before opting for this diet plan. There are some side effects and drawbacks though, which are negligible when compared to its amazing benefits:.

GM Diet is ideal for people looking for instant weight loss, but not finding ample time in their routine. But be sure to add those many glasses of water and workout too, this will keep the momentum going.

GM Diet is just beginning, and when you begin losing weight, you feel good and keep up with your journey to health and fitness. The goodness and results of GM Diet Plan depend on how strictly you followed it and how will you continue to improve your lifestyle further. The first 4-days stay the same for both vegetarian and non-vegetarian.

Vegans can also use this version by substituting the dairy with soy or almond milk. The typical GM Diet Plan states consumption of meat as an important part of the dietary modification, but the vegetarian part is also similar in terms nutrition and weight loss.

Some people also take this vegetarian GM Diet as this is the way to shed all the meat and eggs out of their system, and practice a more healthy lifestyle. Be sure to stop alcohol at least days prior to GM Diet plan. GM Diet veg is all about adding the extra proteins in the form of beans or cottage cheese to compensate for the beef.

GM diet vegetarian or vegan also is a better way to prevent side effects as its lighter for your body and does not cause any nutrient gap, same like its original version. GM Diet Veg is for either vegetarian practitioners in the west or Asian population where many follow the vegetarian way of life. Non-vegetarian GM Diet plan is the actual one proposed by GM Corp and has been a successful one so far, all over the world.

The GM Diet plan non-veg version is more for western countries where beef is a popular daily food and is relished by people. Beef may not be that popular in the Indian subcontinent, but other non-vegetarian substitutes make this an effective offering. All the chicken, fish and beef in the later half of GM Diet plan will keep you going, and it is a definite taste and health booster. The day 1 2 3 and 4 stay the same for both vegetarian and non-vegetarian GM Diet versions.

Also, the other foods on day 5 6 and 7 also stay same just the source of protein changes. Non-vegetarians may have less in terms of quantity but more fulfilling choices than the beans and lentil soup consumed by vegetarians.

But the non-vegetarian version requires more of water and workout to balance it than the vegetarian version. GM Diet Menu must be prepared well in advance, to keep the momentum going. This GM Diet plan menu is your day by day progress to total body transformation.

So be sure to keep all the necessary ingredients mentioned, water being the significant additive every hour or two. Wonder soup for those taste bud-pampering mid-meal delights must be prepared on the days when the same can be consumed. Do not consume more than bowls a day as it can cause bloating.

An overview of the 7-day to diet GM menu wise includes just a brief of it all:. The GM Diet Day 1 begins with a sweet celebration. You can consume all the sweet and tangy fruits on this day. The fruits specially the melons to keep you fuller for longer. Avoid banana and eat more melons, oranges, strawberry, and apples. Watermelon and cantaloupe are great and help in quick weight loss. There is no restriction on number or quantity of fruits you can consume but its always better to keep the stomach relaxed with moderation and prepared for the days ahead.

Drink a lot of water at least glasses in the day. The GM Diet Day 2 begins with sweet potato or small baked potato. Over the day you can consume all vegetables including lettuce, tomato, cabbage, onion, kale, artichoke, spinach, broccoli and limit potato to just breakfast. There is no limit to the quantity of vegetables you can consume. These would be your dose of carb for the day to keep you energized for the day and prepared for upcoming plans ahead. The GM Diet Day 3 consists of both fruits and vegetables you ate on day 1 and 2.

All these can be consumed now. Just avoid banana and potato. This is the day when your body starts to lose fat in chunks. Once the juices that used to be your food leave your small intestine, they enter your large intestine.

At this point, most of the nutrient absorption has happened, but water, fat soluble vitamins and minerals can be absorbed in the colon as well. The naturally present bacteria that are present in your colon will continue to help with digestion; these gut bacteria are called flora. Flora breaks down wastes and extracts small amounts of nutrients whatever is left. The waste that is left over will exit the body from the colon by means of peristalsis, which are contractions that move the waste to the anal canal.

At first the waste is in a liquid state, but as it moves through the colon, the water is removed and it becomes the solid form of stool. The stool is mostly food debris and bacteria; the bacteria fuse vitamins, process waste and food particles, and protect us against harmful bacteria. It takes about 36 hours for stool to get through the colon, and when the colon becomes full, it empties its contents into the rectum, which begins the elimination process.

The way we live and eat has a direct impact on our digestive system and how well it functions. By taking steps to improve your digestive health, your digestive system will function more efficiently, and this will improve your overall health. From the sound of it, you might think leaky gut only affects the digestive system, but in reality it can affect more. Click here to learn more about the webinar. Josh Axe is on a mission to provide you and your family with the highest quality nutrition tips and healthy recipes in the world Health Gut Health Current: How Your Digestive System Works.

Axe on Facebook 4 Dr. Axe on Twitter 2 Dr. Axe on Instagram Dr. Axe on Google Plus Dr. Axe on Youtube Dr. Axe on Facebook Dr. Axe on Twitter 16 Dr. Axe on Facebook 6 Dr. Axe on Twitter 1 Dr. Axe on Twitter Dr. The system is thus closed, and the blood does not directly bathe the tissues. The main vessels are contractile, but blood flow is irregular and it may move backward or forward within an undefined circuit.

The blood is usually colourless, although some species contain pigmented blood cells whose function remains obscure; phagocytic amoebocytes are usually also present. Although remaining fundamentally simple, the system can grow more elaborate with the addition of extra vessels. Pseudocoelomate metazoans have a fluid-filled body cavity, the pseudocoelom , which, unlike a true coelom, does not have a cellular peritoneal lining. Most of the pseudocoelomates e.

Muscular body and locomotor movements may help to circulate nutrients within the pseudocoelom between the gut and the body wall. The lacunar system of channels within the body wall of the gutless acanthocephalans spiny-headed worms may represent a means of circulation of nutrients absorbed through the body wall.

Hemoglobin has been found in the pseudocoelomic fluid of a number of nematodes, but its precise role in oxygen transport is not known. Despite their greater potential complexity, many of the minor coelomate phyla e. All of the major and some of the minor phyla have well-developed blood vascular systems, often of open design. While some small segmented worms of the phylum Annelida have no separate circulatory system, most have a well-developed closed system. The typical arrangement is for the main contractile dorsal vessel to carry blood anteriorly while a number of vertical segmental vessels, often called hearts, carry it to the ventral vessel, in which it passes posteriorly.

Segmental branches supply and collect blood from the respiratory surfaces, the gut, and the excretory organs. There is, however, great scope for variation on the basic circulatory pattern. Many species have a large intestinal sinus rather than a series of vessels supplying the gut, and there may be differences along the length of a single individual.

The posterior blood may flow through an intestinal sinus, the medial flow through a dense capillary plexus, and the anterior flow through typical segmental capillaries. Much modification and complication may occur in species in which the body is divided into more or less distinct regions with specific functions. Many polychaete worms class Polychaeta , especially the fanworms but also representatives of other families, have many blind-ending contractile vessels.

Continual reversals of flow within these vessels virtually replace the normal continuous-flow capillary system. In most leeches class Hirudinea , much of the coelomic space is filled with mesodermal connective tissue, leaving a series of interconnecting coelomic channels. A vascular system comparable to other annelids is present in a few species, but in most the coelomic channels containing blood strictly coelomic fluid have taken over the function of internal transport, with movement induced by contraction of longitudinal lateral channels.

The blood of many annelids contains a respiratory pigment dissolved in the plasma, and the coelomic fluid of others may contain coelomic blood cells containing hemoglobin.

The most common blood pigments are hemoglobin and chlorocruorin, but their occurrence does not fit any simple evolutionary pattern. Closely related species may have dissimilar pigments, while distant relatives may have similar ones. In many species the pigments function in oxygen transport, but in others they are probably more important as oxygen stores for use during periods of hypoxia.

In addition to internal circulation, many polychaete worms also set up circulatory currents for feeding and respiration. Tube-dwelling worms may use muscular activity to pass a current of oxygenated water containing food through their burrows, while filter-feeding fanworms use ciliary activity to establish complicated patterns of water flow through their filtering fans. The phylum Echiura spoonworms contains a small number of marine worms with a circulatory system of similar general pattern to that of the annelids.

Main dorsal and ventral vessels are united by contractile circumintestinal vessels that pump the colourless blood. Coelomic fluid probably aids in oxygen transport and may contain some cells with hemoglobin. With the exception of the cephalopods, members of the phylum Mollusca have an open circulatory system. The chambered, myogenic heart normally has a pair of posterior auricles draining the gills and an anterior ventricle that pumps the blood through the anterior aorta to the tissue sinuses, excretory organs, and gills.

Many gastropods lack a second set of gills, and in these the right auricle is vestigial or absent. The heart is enclosed within the coelomic cavity, which also surrounds part of the intestine. The single aorta branches, and blood is delivered into arterial sinuses, where it directly bathes the tissues.

It is collected in a large venous cephalopedal sinus and, after passing through the excretory organs, returns to the gills. The hydrostatic pressure that develops in the blood sinuses of the foot, especially of bivalve mollusks, is used in locomotion.

Blood flow into the foot is controlled by valves: This type of locomotion is seen most commonly in burrowing species, who move through the substratum almost exclusively by this means.

Like the annelids, many mollusks, especially the more sedentary bivalves, set up local feeding and respiratory currents. Fluid movement through the mantle cavity normally depends on muscular pumping through inhalant and exhalant siphons.

Within the cavity itself, however, ciliary activity maintains continuous movement across the gill surfaces, collecting food particles and passing them to the mouth. The cephalopods are more active than other mollusks and consequently have higher metabolic rates and circulatory systems of a higher order of organization.

These systems are closed with distinct arteries, veins, and capillaries; the blood 6 percent of body weight remains distinct from the interstitial fluid 15 percent of body weight.

These relative percentages of body weight to blood volume are similar to those of vertebrates and differ markedly from those of species with open circulatory systems, in which hemolymph may constitute 40 to 50 percent of body weight. The cephalopod heart usually consists of a median ventricle and two auricles. Arterial blood is pumped from the ventricle through anterior and posterior aortas that supply the head and body, respectively.

It is passed through the capillary beds of the organs, is collected, and is returned to the heart through a major venous vessel, the vena cava. The vena cava bifurcates divides into two branches near the excretory organs, and each branch enters the nephridial sac before passing to the accessory hearts situated at the base of the gills. Veins draining the anterior and posterior mantle and the gonads merge with the branches of the vena cava before reaching the branchial hearts.

Contraction of the branchial hearts increases the blood pressure and forces blood through the gill capillaries. The auricles then drain the gills of oxygenated blood. The blood of most mollusks, including cephalopods, contains hemocyanin , although a few gastropods use hemoglobin.

In the cephalopods the pigment unloads at relatively high oxygen pressures, indicating that it is used to transport rather than store oxygen. Rapid cephalopod locomotion depends almost entirely on water pressure.

During inhalation, muscular activity within the mantle wall increases the volume of the mantle cavity and water rushes in. Contraction of the circular mantle muscles closes the edge of the mantle and reduces its volume, forcing the enclosed water through the mobile funnel at high pressure. The force of water leaving the funnel propels the animal in the opposite direction. Members of the phylum Brachiopoda lamp shells superficially resemble the mollusks but are not related. The circulatory system of brachiopods is open and consists of a small contractile heart situated over the gut, from which anterior and posterior channels supply sinuses in the wall of the gut, the mantle wall, and the reproductive organs.

The blood vascular system of arthropods is open. The coelom is much reduced, and most of the spaces in the arthropod body are hemocoels. The tubular heart is dorsal and contained in a pericardial sinus. Blood is pumped from the heart through a series of vessels arteries that lead to the tissue sinuses. Although the blood flows freely through the tissues it may, especially in the larger species, be directed by membranes along a more or less constant pathway.

The blood collects in a ventral sinus from which it is conducted back to the heart through one or more venous channels. Variations in the circulatory patterns of the different classes of the phylum Arthropoda largely reflect the method of respiratory exchange and consequent function of the blood vascular system. Most of the aquatic species of the class Crustacea have gills with a well-developed circulatory system, including accessory hearts to increase blood flow through the gills.

A small number of species lack gills and a heart, and oxygen is absorbed through the body surface; bodily movements or peristaltic gut contractions circulate the blood within the tissue spaces.

In the mainly terrestrial class Insecta, the role of oxygen transport has been removed from the blood and taken over by the ramifying tracheal system that carries gaseous atmospheric oxygen directly to the consuming tissues. Insects are able to maintain the high metabolic rates necessary for flight while retaining a relatively inefficient circulatory system. Among the chelicerate possessing fanglike front appendages arthropods for example, scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites , the horseshoe crab, Limulus , has a series of book gills gills arranged in membranous folds on either side of the body into which blood from the ventral sinus passes for oxygenation prior to return to the heart.

The largely terrestrial arachnids may have book lungs that occupy a similar position in the circulatory pathway, a tracheal system comparable to that of insects, or, in the case of smaller species, reduced tracheal and vascular systems in which contractions of the body muscles cause blood circulation through the sinus network. The legs of spiders are unusual because they lack extensor muscles and because blood is used as hydraulic fluid to extend the legs in opposition to flexor muscles. The blood pressure of a resting spider is equal to that of a human being and may double during activity.

The high pressure is maintained by valves in the anterior aorta and represents an exception to the general rule that open circulatory systems only function at low pressure.

The circulatory systems of echinoderms sea urchins, starfishes, and sea cucumbers are complicated as they have three largely independent fluid systems. The large fluid-filled coelom that surrounds the internal organs constitutes the major medium for internal transport.

Circulatory currents set up by the ciliated cells of the coelomic lining distribute nutrients from the gut to the body wall. Phagocytic coelomocytes are present, and in some species these contain hemoglobin.

The coelomic fluid has the same osmotic pressure as seawater, and the inability to regulate that pressure has confined the echinoderms to wholly marine habitats.

The blood-vascular hemal system is reduced and consists of small, fluid-filled sinuses that lack a distinct lining. The system is most highly developed in the holothurians sea cucumbers , in which it consists of an anterior hemal ring and radial hemal sinuses. The most prominent features are the dorsal and ventral sinuses, which accompany the intestine and supply it through numerous smaller channels.

The dorsal sinus is contractile, and fluid is pumped through the intestinal sinuses into the ventral sinus and thence to the hemal ring. Most members of the class Holothuroidea have a pair of respiratory trees, located in the coelom on either side of the intestine, which act as the major sites for respiratory exchange. Each tree consists of a main tubular trunk with numerous side branches, each ending in a small vesicle.

Water is passed through the tubules by the pumping action of the cloaca. The branches of the left tree are intermingled with the intestinal hemal sinuses and provide a means of oxygenating the blood via the coelomic fluid. The right tree is free in the coelomic fluid and has no close association with the hemal system. Respiratory exchange in other echinoderms is through thin areas of the body wall, and the hemal system tends to be reduced.

The water vascular system of echinoderms is best developed in the starfishes and functions as a means of locomotion and respiratory exchange. The entire system consists of a series of fluid-filled canals lined with ciliated epithelium and derived from the coelom. The canals connect to the outside through a porous, button-shaped plate, called the madreporite , which is united via a duct the stone canal with a circular canal ring canal that circumvents the mouth.

Long canals radiate from the water ring into each arm. Lateral canals branch alternately from the radial canals, each terminating in a muscular sac or ampulla and a tube foot podium , which commonly has a flattened tip that can act as a sucker. Contraction of the sac results in a valve in the lateral canal closing as the contained fluid is forced into the podium, which elongates.

On contact with the substratum, the centre of the distal end of the podium is withdrawn, resulting in a partial vacuum and adhesion that is aided by the production of a copious adhesive secretion. Withdrawal results from contraction of the longitudinal muscles of the podia. Among the phylum Hemichordata are the enteropneusts acornworms , which are worm-shaped inhabitants of shallow seas and have a short, conical proboscis , which gives them their common name.

The vascular system of the Enteropneusta is open, with two main contractile vessels and a system of sinus channels. The colourless blood passes forward in the dorsal vessel, which widens at the posterior of the proboscis into a space, the contractile wall of which pumps the blood into the glomerulus , an organ formed from an in-tucking of the hind wall of the proboscis cavity.

From the glomerulus the blood is collected into two channels that lead backward to the ventral longitudinal vessel.

This vessel supplies the body wall and gut with a network of sinuses that eventually drain back into the dorsal vessel. The phylum Chordata contains all animals that possess, at some time in their life cycles, a stiffening rod the notochord , as well as other common features. The subphylum Vertebrata is a member of this phylum and will be discussed later see below The vertebrate circulatory system. All other chordates are called protochordates and are classified into two groups: The blood-vascular system of the tunicates , or sea squirts , is open, the heart consisting of no more than a muscular fold in the pericardium.

There is no true heart wall or lining and the whole structure is curved or U-shaped, with one end directed dorsally and the other ventrally. Each end opens into large vessels that lack true walls and are merely sinus channels. The ventral vessel runs along the ventral side of the pharynx and branches to form a lattice around the slits in the pharyngeal wall through which the respiratory water currents pass.

Blood circulating through this pharyngeal grid is provided with a large surface area for gaseous exchange. The respiratory water currents are set up by the action of cilia lining the pharyngeal slits and, in some species, by regular muscular contractions of the body wall.

Dorsally, the network of pharyngeal blood vessels drains into a longitudinal channel that runs into the abdomen and breaks up into smaller channels supplying the digestive loop of the intestine and the other visceral organs. The blood passes into a dorsal abdominal sinus that leads back to the dorsal side of the heart. The circulatory system of the sea squirt is marked by periodic reversals of blood flow caused by changes in the direction of peristaltic contraction of the heart.

Sea squirt blood has a slightly higher osmotic pressure than seawater and contains a number of different types of amoebocytes, some of which are phagocytic and actively migrate between the blood and the tissues. The blood of some sea squirts also contains green cells, which have a unique vanadium-containing pigment of unknown function.

Amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum is a cephalochordate that possesses many typical vertebrate features but lacks the cranial cavity and vertebral column of the true vertebrate.

Its circulatory pattern differs from that of most invertebrates as the blood passes forward in the ventral and backward in the dorsal vessels.

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