What Is a Reptile?
The frog does not breathe through its skin alone. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. In frogs, the hind legs are larger than the fore legs, especially so in those species that principally move by jumping or swimming. The ovum is at first rigidly held, but in fertilised eggs the innermost layer liquefies and allows the embryo to move freely. The human backbone has 24 vertebrae. The actual number of species in each group depends on the taxonomic classification followed. However, there are certain exceptions such as the absence of external ears in snakes they have the inner and middle ears.
Secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands play a large role in controlling the body temperature of humans. The two functions consist of secretion of a filtrate in response to acetylcholine and reabsorption of sodium near the duct when there is water in excess so that a sweat can be surfacing the skin. There are three parts to the eccrine sweat gland and these are the pore, the duct, and the gland.
The pore is the portion that goes through the outermost layer of the skin and is typically microns in diameter. The duct is the part of the sweat gland that connects dermis cells to the epidermis. It is composed by two layers of cells and is between 10 and 20 microns in diameter. The gland does the actual secretion and it lies deep within the dermis. The cells that make up the gland are larger in size than the duct cells and its lumen is around 20 microns in diameter.
After bile is produced in the liver, it is stored in the gall bladder. It is then secreted within the small intestine where it helps to emulsify fats in the same manner as a soap. Bile also contains bilirubin , which is a waste product. Bile salts can be considered waste that is useful for the body given that they have a role in fat absorption from the stomach. They are excreted from the liver and along with blood flow they help to form the shape of the liver where they are excreted.
For instance, if biliary drainage is impaired than that part of the liver will end up wasting away. Biliary obstruction is typically due to masses blocking the ducts of the system such as tumors. The consequences of this depend on the site of blockage and how long it goes on for. There is inflammation of the ducts due to the irritation from the bile acids and this can cause infections. If rupture of the duct takes place it is very traumatic and even fatal. Within the kidney, blood first passes through the afferent artery to the capillary formation called a glomerulus and is collected in the Bowman's capsule , which filters the blood from its contents—primarily food and wastes.
After the filtration process, the blood then returns to collect the food nutrients it needs, while the wastes pass into the collecting duct, to the renal pelvis, and to the ureter, and are then secreted out of the body via the urinary bladder.
When substances are not properly dissolved, they have the ability to build up, and form these kidney stones. These stones are most commonly made up of substances such as calcium, cystine, oxalate, and uric acid, as these are the substances that normally would dissolve within the urine.
When they do not dissolve correctly and further build up, they will commonly lodge themselves in the urinary tract and in this case, are usually small enough to pass through urine. In extreme situations, however, these stones may lodge themselves within the tube that connects the kidney and the bladder, called the ureter.
In this case, they become very large in size and will most likely cause great pain, bleeding, and possibly even block the flow of urine. In those extreme situations, in which kidney stones are too large to pass on their own, patients may seek removal. Most of these treatments involving kidney stone removal are done by a urologist; a physician who specializes in the organs of the Urinary system. Larger, more serious cases may demand Cystoscopy, Ureteroscopy, or Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy, in which the doctor will use a viewing tool or camera to locate the stone, and based on the size or situation, may either chose to continue with surgical removal, or use the shock wave lithotripsy treatment.
Once the kidney stone s are successfully eliminated, the urologist will commonly suggest medication to prevent future recurrences. Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection that occurs when bacteria enters the body through the urinary tract. It causes an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis. In acute pyelonephritis, the patient experiences high fever, abdominal pain and pain while passing urine. Treatment for acute pyelonephritis is provided via antibiotics and an extensive urological investigation is conducted to find any abnormalities and prevent recurrence.
In chronic pyelonephritis, patients experience persistent abdominal and flank pain, high fever, decreased appetite, weight loss, urinary tract symptoms and blood in the urine. Chronic pyelonephritis can also lead to scarring of the renal parenchyma caused by recurrent kidney infections. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an unusual form of chronic pyelonephritis.
It results in severe destruction of the kidney and causes granulomatous abscess formation. Patients infected with Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis experience recurrent fevers, anemia , kidney stones and loss of function in the affected kidney.
A urine culture and antibiotics sensitivity test is issued for patients who are believed to have pyelonephritis. Since most cases of pyelonephritis are caused from bacterial infections, antibiotics are a common treatment option. Depending on the species of the infecting organism and the antibiotics sensitivity profile of the organism, treatments may include fluoroquinolones , cephalosporins , aminoglycosides , or trimethoprim individually or in combination.
Nephrectomy is the most common surgical treatment for a majority of cases invloving xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In men, roughly cases per 10, are treated as outpatients and 1 in 10, cases require admission to the hospital.
In women, approximately in 10, cases are treated as outpatients and cases are admitted to a hospital. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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